Carlotta - the museum database

OBJTXTBeskrivning - engelska

1A. Bellinger, has donated objects to the museum in 1939.
1A.M. Duggan-Cronin (1874-1954) Alfred Duggan-Cronin was born on 17 May 1874 at Innishannon in Ireland. In 1897 he came out to South Africa and started his career with De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd. In 1904 he bought a box camera and began taking photographs. He taught himself the techniques and the first indigenous people he photographed were migrant workers in the compounds. A realisation and awareness that their traditional way of life was rapidly changing led Duggan-Cronin to contemplate going out into the field to capture the people in their homes, and their way of life before it was lost completely or changed irrevocably. Miss Maria Wilman, the first director of the McGregor Museum in Kimberley, encouraged him in this enterprise and assisted with obtaining funding. Several later expeditions were funded by the Carnegie Corporation. In 1919 Duggan-Cronin made his first expedition which was to the Langeberg (in the Northern Cape), where he photographed the San people living there. Over the next twenty years he would undertake on average two journeys a year to many parts of South Africa. He also travelled to the neighbouring countries: Lesotho, Swaziland, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Zambia and Mozambique. In all he clocked up over 128 000 kilometres on these travels and took over 6000 photographs. Duggan-Cronin died in 1954 and is buried in Kimberley. His collection was left to the people of Kimberley, and is in the care of the McGregor Museum. It is housed at the Gallery which bears his name. Made available through the beneficence of De Beers the Duggan-Cronin Gallery was opened in 1938, serving as both a place to display his work and as his home. When General J.C. Smuts visited the Gallery he remarked that: ‘you can die now Cronin, your monument is raised’. Duggan-Cronin replied: ‘I would like to live a little longer to enjoy my monument, General, if I may!’. (http://www.my-kimberley.co.za/get%20busy/articles.php?id=127, 2010-09-03)
1A. Olby
1A.W. Bahr was born in Shanghai in 1877 to a German father and a Chinese mother. He founded the Central Trading Company with a friend in 1898. Throughout the next few years, he remained in China, organizing various art exhibitions with pieces from his own collection. Bahr moved to London, England in 1910, where he continued to exhibit art, finally moving to Canada with his family in 1946. Before his death in 1959, Bahr donated pieces of his collection to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Royal Ontario Museum of Archaeology, and the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts. (Smithsonian Instituion Research Information System, SIRIS)
1A "Camel Back" Bridge.
1A Bambeiro family near Melange. The husband has adopted European ways while his three wives still retain their old customs and manner of dress. His little girl to his right is a pupil in the American Mission School.
1A Bambeiro woman, living in the "Bondo Country" east of Melange with her snuff box and perfume case in her ear, a very practical arrangement. In the one end of the tube is the snuff, in the other is the perfume.
1Abdullah Mirza Qajar was the son of Jahangir Mirza, a member of the Qajar family - the rulers of Persia. Photography had been introduced to Persia in the 1860s, and the shah, Naser al-Din, was a keen photographer. Abdullah studied photography in Paris and Vienna and was the official photographer at the Dar al-Fonun, the modern school founded by Mirza Taqi Khan Amir Kabir, the reform-minded minister of the shah. Abdullah Qajar was appointed chief of the imperial printing press during the reign of the succeeding shah, Mozaffar al-Din, and in 1900, accompanied him to Europe. He photographed public personalities, common people, urban and rural scenes, and buildings, and he signed them Special photographer to His Imperial Majesty, and His humble servant, Abdullah Qajar. In 1896, he wrote a short account of the methods he had studied in Europe and about his career. (http://www.answers.com/topic/abdullah-mirza-qajar, 2010-05-17)
1Abdul Rahman Surizahi is without dispute the grand maestro of the benjo, a type of cittra from Balochistan. He regularly tours all over the world performing as a soloist as well as a member of various groups. Considered a living legend among music lovers of Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan and parts of India, he has also been rewarded with the prestigious German "Preis der Deutschen Schallplattenkritik award" and the Norwegian Folk Music prize. Surizahi has been praised by various grand masters of Iranian music like M.R. Shajarian, Shahram Nazeri, Hossein Alizadeh among others. Recordings in which he has participated include editions on the Occora label, Golbang; The Sacred Music of Balochistan, and numerous folk music recordings in the Balochi world. (www.padiks.se, 2014-04-09)
1A big tourist attraction are the Bantu Tribal dances which take place in the Mine Compounds usually on Sunday morning.
1Abul Qasim Khan Arab Shaibani, known as Imad ul-Mulk III, (b.1868, d. ?, Abolghasem Khan Arab Sheybani (Emadolmolk)) belonged to Bani Shaiban clan who were of Arab origin. He was the hereditary Governor and ruler of Tun and Tabas, his family ruled the region since the 18th century. In 1898 he succeeded his brother Ali Akbar Khan Imad ul-Mulk II as the Governor of Tun and Tabas. He became ill in 1907 and his eldest son became the caretaker Governor in his place. In 1915 he and his son gave great assistance to Germans (ie. Niedermayer–Hentig Expedition) passing through their district and were reported to have employed 200 to 300 sowars to protect them.
1A bundle of coarse fabric of raffia-type. Bundle contains bilongo (force-carrying substance) and is tightly sealed by a narrow string in several turns. Above the seal the textile folds into a long tail with beautifully twisted lashes at the end. At the side of the bundle a feather is attached.
1A buried wooden mortar outside the compound used for pounding palm nut to squeezed out palm oil by an elderly woman and view from afar by people. (Gabriel Idagu Oko, Chief Curator, National Museum of Lagos 2014)
1A canopic jar and a lid in the shape of a human head. The jar has two vertical rows of hieroglyphic inscriptions. ¨Words spoken by Isis: (I) kill the enemy, I protect (?) Amset, who is inside me. According to a piece of paper it arrived on the sixteenth of February 1884 as a gift from the consul general from Haiti, Mr. H. Hoeyluerts in Bruxelles to, (in Swedish), ´Riksmuseets etnografiska afdelning´. A receipt exists since 1972.
1A carpenters shop
1A cawa (iron kettle) in which the food is cooked. (katalogkort)
1Accessories for Mukanda and makishi. Rattles of various sizes are fastened to the leg or held in the hands of both makishi and the dancing boys who'll be initiated into Mukanda. Rattles are percussion instruments which, along with the drums, are important for marking the different complex rhythms associated with particular characters and dances. Several makishi use everyday objects as part of the masquerade, but women also use items like hoes, axes, or fish baskets when dancing with the makishi. In the showcase you can see accessories from Makishi Masquerades among Ngangela and Chokw in Angola. Among many ethnic groups in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola and Zambia is a masquerade tradition called makishi. The hundred masked characters, depicting people, animals, or imaginary creatures, represent a variety of ancestral spirits with different characteristics. Some are haughty, others comical or menacing. Usually the masked character appears for different rites of passage, for example: when a boy becomes a man, at funerals or when a person assumes an office.
1A central livestock market for Ashanti and Kumasi Ghana with a different species of fowls. The market shows a scanty sellers and buyers. (Gabriel Idagu Oko, Chief Curator, National Museum of Lagos 2014)
1A clay vessel used as a household utensil.
1A clay vessel used as a household utensil by the nobility. Prof. M. H. Goonatilleka
1A close up of the markings. The enlargements of these pictures show even more markings than we first saw in situ with the naked eye.
1A council of war
1a cylindical piece that seems to have been polished to one side to produce four flattened surfaces.
1A dance mask from the Musulu country on top of a basket. Observe the face is European.
1ADCA is a non-profit organization according to the applicable laws and regulations of China. After approval by the relevant authorities, it was officially registered in March 1997. The founding session of the Association was held on November 28th 1997 in Beijing, and drew significant attention from academic, cultural as well as media circles. It was followed immediately by a series of acclaimed exhibitions of rare cultural objects, photos, documentaries as well as works of art both at home and abroad. With gradual waning of traditional Dongba influences, coupled with the ascent of modern values and changing lifestyles, the establishment of ADCA represents a significant step to reverse a process of loss. With its work ADCA not only aims to preserve and promote Dongba culture, but also foster cooperation and understanding among all nationalities of China. Although Dongba culture has recently enjoyed increased exposure, still much remains to be done to beat the clock. We therefore hope that persons from all walks of life, who are genuinely interested in Dongba culture, provide ADCA with their active support, cherished opinions and join us in our efforts. (www.dongba-culture.com)
1A Detroit Publishing hand colored print dated 1899. Titled, 53409. Utes. Jose Romero and Family. From an original W. Henry Jackson photograph. These prints were run through a twelve part process in which each individual color was printed separately.
1A dexcendent of the Indians who perhaps knelt before this petroglyth. He is really the discoverer of the rock. Clear an area for rice planting by burning. He in turn told Don Alejandro.
1Adolfo de Hostos (born 1887) served in the mid twentieth century, from January 1936 to 1950, as the fifth Official Historian of Puerto Rico, a position created in March, 1903, by the Puerto Rico Legislature. De Hostos had served in the Army and as military aide to Gov. Arthur Yeager before his appointment by Gov. Blanton Winship. His most prominent publication is "Ciudad Murada", the history of the city of San Juan, Puerto Rico, the United States' oldest city. After his retirement in 1950, the position of Official Historian remained vacant for 43 years, until the Puerto Rico House of Representatives approved in 1993 Senate Concurrent Resolution 14, authored by Sen. Kenneth McClintock, designated Dr. Barbosa. De Hostos made an important contribution to pre-Columbian archaeology with his book titled Anthropological Papers: Based Principally on Studies of the Prehistoric Archaeology and Ethnology of the Greater Antilles published in 1941. (wikipedia, 2011-06-15)
1A drama on Mahabhartata story.
1A drawing of the craft built recently (2015) by the Guugu-Yimidhirr.
1Adrien Taunay the Younger (1803 - 5 January 1828) was a French painter and draftsman. He was born in Paris in 1803, the son of history and genre painter Nicolas-Antoine Taunay (1755-1830). Adrien moved to Rio de Janeiro in 1816, accompanying his father, who was a member of the French Artistic Mission. Adrien was the junior draftsman aboard the French vessel of exploration Uranie, commanded by Captain Louis de Freycinet. During the ship's 22 day stay in Hawaii in 1819, Adrien Taunay working with the official artist Jacques Arago (1790-1855), produced many portraits and natural history drawings. They depicted the local people and landscape at a time when Hawaii was becoming a whaling center and part of the trade route with China. After completion of this voyage, Adrien returned to Rio de Janeiro in 1820, and devoted himself to the study of arts and languages. He succeeded Johann Moritz Rugendas (1802-1858), to the position of first draughtsman of the exhibition led by the Consul Georg Heinrich von Langsdorff (1774-1852), which between the years 1825 to 1829 navigated the rivers of the Brazilian states of São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso and Pará. After traveling for two years, they arrived in Cuiabá, where they remained for approximately a year. Langsdorff then decided to split the expedition into two groups, which, after following different routes, would meet in the city of Belém do Pará. The group consisting of Adrien Taunay and the botanist Ludwig Riedel (1791-1861) had the task of following the rivers Guaporé and Madeira. On this journey, they reached Vila Bela de Mato Grosso, in December 1827. After a number of trips around the settlements and having separated from Ludwig Riedel|Riedel, Adrien Taunay got lost in the forest. He finally managed to locate the bank of the Guaporé river, but drowned while trying to cross it in January 1828. The Honolulu Academy of Arts and the National Library of Australia are among the public collections holding works of Adrien Taunay the Younger. (wikipedia, 2012-02-27)
1A drum is simply a skin stretched over a sounding board. It can look like almost anything and is called, more elegantly, a membranophone.
 Drums are played in all of the world's cultures. With its rhythm, people are called together, urged to celebration, dance and funeral. You can incite soldiers to go to war with the help of the drum, communicate over long distances, or use the drum to go into a trance and make contact with other worlds. In certain cultures, the drum has been regarded as so powerful and dangerous that it has been forbidden. 
The drums in this display fell silent long ago. But originally they had different functions, and their tone and rhythm conveyed many feelings and messages.
 The hourglass-shaped drum in the middle is a donno, a talking drum from West Africa. It came to the Museum of Ethnography in 1907 as a gift from the German Professor Hans Meyer. You produce different pitches by holding the drum under your arm and squeezing the wires together so the skin is tightened or loosened.
1A fetish to the River Spirit, in the pot are kept small pieces of branches in water from the river.
1A Fijian paddle-shaped club, collected in Tonga by Anders Sparrman.
1A fine type. Note the brass rings below his knees. These as well as brass rings around the arms are generally worn. See picture of woman, no 40. (katalogkort)
1A fishing village. The fisheries of Japan are of enormous importance. Fish and other sea products are daily houshold foods throughout the empire. The drying of fish and the manufacture of fish oil, seaweed gelatine, and fish guano furnish occupation for many thousands of people along the shore.
1Afong (A Fong, Ah Fong, Lai Afong), Hong Kong Chinese studio whose founder apparently started in the profession c. 1859, leaving his son to continue c. 1890. The firm continued into the third generation, until 1941. As with most Chinese studios, the man behind the commercial name is elusive. However, his business activities are clear, because from the mid-1860s he was advertising heavily in the local foreign-language press. Aiming, like his fellow countrymen, at the most profitable part of the business, he endeavoured to take photography out of Westerners' hands, undercutting their prices while offering similar products. Afong is one of the few Chinese photographers who did views; his Hong Kong series compare with Floyd's or Thomson's in subject matter (if not quality). While Afong the man seems to have owned the studio, how much of a photographer he himself was is unclear, since he employed Western assistants/managers, as well as Chinese staff. Ultimately, as in all Chinese ports, he and his colleagues in Hong Kong remained masters of the game. (Régine Thiriez, www.answers.com, 2012-04-25)
1A fossilized fish vertebrae
1After fishing
1After he received his Medical License in Sweden he went to France and studied under Louis Pasteur and then went to Germany and studied under Nobel Prize winner Robert Koch. (email, 2010-12-05, from Eric Stroschein, genealogist, Great great grandson of P.G. Richard Hogner. He lives in Seattle Washington).
2A galmo is a waterproof cover for protecting a gat (man’s brimmed hat worn outdoors) from rain. It is made from pleated oil-paper. When open, it is cone-shaped, reminiscent of an umbrella, when folded it looks like a fan. The long strings which are attached in the lower section of the galmo were probably used to fasten the galmo above the gat.
1A glazed and ornamented clay pot, häliya or valanda (Sin.), used in the household to boil water. (Prof. M. H. Goonatilleka)
1A glazed clay vase, pukuruva (Sin.), with two separately attached handles. The vase is used in a upper class household. Prof. M. H. Goonatilleka
1A glazed clay vessel, kalaya or sembuva (Sin.), used as a household utensil, or for games. This type of vessel is normally made of copper. The brim is damaged. Prof. M. H. Goonatilleka
1A glazed clay vessel (Sin. muttiya), used in households all over Sri Lanka.
1Agra-Mausoleum of Prince Itimad-ud-Daula. The tomb, completed in 1628, built entirely of white marble and covered wholly by pietra dura mosaic, is one of the most spledid examples of that class of ornamention to be found.
1A group of crew boys on the Arnfried, book boy the second from the right.
1A group of Persian rural musicians
1A hunting net in a Kisama village.
1A hut with natives in the Kisama country.
1A ilongot boy, a little over two years old, who took first prize at a baby contest and was declared by doctors to be 99,9% perfect according to American standard. He objected to having his picture taken. Incidentally 270 entries, both christians had entered this contest. (katalogkort)
1Aino dwelling. Island of Yezo. In the northern islands of Japan, chiefly on the shores of Yezo, in the Kuriles, and in southern Sakhalin lives a tribe of Mongolians distinguished physically from the Japanes by their strong growth of hair.
1A Japanese funeral.
1A jar, baraniya (Sin.), made of clay. Used as a household utensil. (Prof. M. H. Goonatilleka)
1Akamba. Storehouse. Professor Lindblom's notes: Through the hole in the grass of the roof one can see two baskets of grass that are used to store corn and other products.
1A koryak woman seated in a sledge with a team of dogs harnessed to it.
1A Kurilian, a Chukchi.
1Akvarell med accentuering av tusch. Spår av blyertskiss syns. Signerad T.Kn. Skrift på framsidan under motivet, täckt av äldre passepartout, ”Ni Si Pleng ställer sin gåva framför Eremiten och gör sembajan”. Bildtext i blyerts överensstämmer med den tryckta bildtexten i publikationen Ni-Si-Pleng som utgavs 1924. I nämnd publikation kommer verket som den tjugoandra illustrationen i ordningen. Äldre uppmärkning på baksidan med siffran ”1”.
1A lacquered flower vase, mal banduna (Sin.), made of clay. (Prof. M. H. Goonatilleka)
1Alamba. Lindblom's notes: Musicians at the dans mbalya. The music is made by drums. In the front a fire where the skins are warmed. See The Akamba and the collection of Lindblom. Machakos.
1Albert von Le Coq (1860–1930) was a German archaeologist and explorer of Central Asia. He was heir to a sizable fortune derived from breweries and wineries scattered throughout Central and Eastern Europe, thus allowing him the luxury of travel and study at the - no longer existing - Ethnology Museum (German: Museum für Völkerkunde) in Berlin. Serving as assistant to the head of the Museum, Professor Albert Grünwedel, Le Coq helped plan and organize expeditions into the regions of western Asia, specifically areas near the Silk Road such as Gaochang. When Grünwedel fell ill before the departure of the second expedition, Le Coq was assigned to lead it. His account of the second and third German Turpan expeditions was published in English in 1928 as "Buried Treasures of Chinese Turkestan". The expeditions found extensive networks of Buddhist and Manichaean cave temples in the Xinjiang region of Northwest China. Although many of the manuscripts found in the cave were destroyed during the excavation, von Le Coq speculated that he had discovered a major Manichaean library. Some of the paintings also led him to believe that he had found evidence of an "Aryan" culture, related to the Franks. With the help of his assistant Bartus, Le Coq carved and sawed away over 360 kilograms (or 305 cases) of artifacts, wall-carvings, and precious icons, which were subsequently shipped to the museum. In Buried Treasures ..., Le Coq defends these "borrowings" as a matter of necessity, citing the turbulent nature of Chinese Turkestan at the time of the expeditions. Chinese consider this seizure a "colonial rapacity" comparable to the taking of the Elgin Marbles or the Koh-i-Noor diamond. The artifacts were put on display at the museum and were open to the public until 1944 when the relics were destroyed in a British bombing raid during World War II. Le Coq said that the depictions of figures with apparently blue eyes, red hair and cruciform swords resembled Frankish art: "Such more striking are representations of red-haired, blue-eyed men with faces of a pronounced European type. We connect these people with the Aryan language found in these parts in so many manuscripts.. These red haired people wear suspenders from their belts.. a remarkable ethnological peculiarity. (wikipedia, 2012-01-30)
1Alcide Charles Victor Marie Dessalines d'Orbigny (6 September 1802 - 30 June 1857) was a French naturalist who made major contributions in many areas, including zoology (including malacology), palaeontology, geology, archaeology and anthropology. D'Orbigny was born in Couëron (Loire-Atlantique), the son of a ship's physician and amateur naturalist. The family moved to La Rochelle in 1820, where his interest in natural history was developed while studying the marine fauna and especially the microscopic creatures that he named "foraminiferans". In Paris he became a disciple of the geologist Pierre Louis Antoine Cordier (1777-1861) and Georges Cuvier. All his life, he would follow the theory of Cuvier and stay opposed to Lamarckism. South American eraD'Orbigny travelled on a mission for the Paris Museum, in South America between 1826 and 1833. He visited Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Chile, Bolivia and Peru and returned to France with an enormous collection of more than 10,000 natural history specimens. He described part of his findings in La Relation du Voyage dans l'Amérique Méridionale pendant les annés 1826 à 1833 (Paris, 1824-47, in 90 fascicles. His contemporary, Charles Darwin called this book "one of the great monuments of science in the 19th century". The other specimens were described by zoologists at the museum. He had numerous interactions with Darwin, and named certain species after Darwin; for example d'Orbigny assigned the common name Darwin's rhea to the South American bird Rhea pennata.[1] [edit] 1840 and later On the shore of Rio Magdalen. Image from Voyages pittoresque dans les deux AmériquesIn 1840, d'Orbigny started the methodical description of French fossils and published La Paléontologie Française (8 vols). In 1849 he published a closely related Prodrome de Paléontologie Stratigraphique, intended as a "Preface to Stratigraphic Palaeontology", in which he described almost 18,000 species, and with biostratigraphical comparisons erected geological stages, the definitions of which rest on their stratotypes. In 1853 he became professor of palaeontology at the Paris Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, publishing his Cours élémentaire that related paleontology to zoology, as a science independent of the uses made of it in stratigraphy.[2] The chair of paleontology was created especially in his honor. The d’Orbigny collection is housed in the Salle d'Orbigny and is often visited by experts.[3] He described as first the geological timescales and defined numerous geological strata, still used today as chronostratigraphic reference such as Toarcian, Callovian, Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian, Aptian, Albian and Cenomanian. He died in the small town of Pierrefitte-sur-Seine, near Paris. (wikipedia, 2012-03-13)
1Alessandro Comini, Italian photographer, based in Asmara, Eritrea in the 1900s and 1910s, working as the official photographer of the colony. (http://reed.dur.ac.uk/xtf/view?docId=ead/sad/camerona.xml)
1Alexander Ariʻipaea Vehiaitipare Salmon Jr. (1855–1914) was the English-Jewish-Tahitian co-owner of the Maison Brander plantations on Tahiti and de facto ruler of Easter Island from 1878 till its cession to Chile in 1888.
1alexander Gardner, photographer born in Paisley, Scotland, on 17th October 1821, at the age of 14 moved with his family to Glasgow and became an apprentice jeweller. At the Great Exhibition in 1851 in Hyde Park, London, he saw the photography of American Mathew Brady, and started experimenting with photography. Gardner and his family moved to the United States in 1856. He initiated contact with Brady and came to work for him, eventually managing Brady's Washington, D.C., gallery. On the outbreak of the American civil war there was a dramatic increase in the demand for Gardner's work as soldiers wanted to be photographed in uniform before going to the front-line. Many of the officers were photographed at the Matthew Brady Studio. On leaving Brady's studio, Gardner was commissioned as photographer with the survey team investigating a proposed route to extend the Union Pacific Railway along the 35th parallel during 1867-1868. (British Museum, 2016-04-15)
1Alexandre Michon (Russian: Александр Михайлович Мишон) (born in Kharkov – died 5 July 1921, near Samara) was a Russian photographer and film director. Born to a French family in Kharkov, he started his career as a photographer and owned a photo studio in his hometown. He later settled in Baku (nowadays capital of Azerbaijan) and lived there for 25 years. Here in 1898 he shot his first films using a Lumiere cinematograph. Michon is widely regarded as the pioneer of Azerbaijani cinema. (wikipedia, 2010-04-26)
1Alfhild Lundin
1Alfred Ayotte was a French (?) journalist, photographer, and traveler who was interested in the anthropological aspects of the natives of the countries he visited. (http://findingaids.princeton.edu/getEad?eadid=C1177, 2012-05-02)
1Alfred S. Campbell (1840-1912) photographer and entrepreneur. He worked in England before he came to the USA in 1866 with Napoleon Sarony, to run Sarony & Co. He then started Alfred S. Campbell Art Company, Elizabeth New Jersey, also known as AS Campbell Art Co.; Campbell Art Company, Campbell Art Factory, Campbell Picture factory, etc. He also partnered with Francis Price in Price & Campbell, New York, then opened Campbell Studios New York with Rudolf Eickemeyer, later Morand. He later bought into Montauk Photographic Manufacturing Co. (Trenton, NJ) and Landon, Kent & Co. (WVA, MD). Campbell Studio NY probably also expanded to other cities. His companies were some of the largest of the kind in the USA. As far as his work as an artist; Some of Alfred S. Campbell's stereoviews may be seen at the Library of Congress. A painting by Alfred S. Campbell, 1899 is in the Smithsonian. (http://campbellartcompany.weebly.com, http://www.antiqueprint.org/topic/138, http://broadway.cas.sc.edu/index.php?action=showPhotographer&id=33)
1Alfred Saint-Ange Briquet (30 December 1833, Paris – 1926, Mexico) was a French pioneer of photography, particularly in Mexico.
1Alfred Westholm participated in the Swedish Cyprus Expedition.
1Alioune Ba is a key figure in the development of art photography in Mali, Alioune Ba’s monochrome images focus on tone, texture and pictorial rhythm. Undermining Western preconceptions of the Sahel region by presenting it as a repository of quiet beauty, many of his photographs offer graceful insights into village life. Ba’s images of exquisitely decorated bodies, meanwhile, make visual poetry from local rituals by mixing abstract patterns with vivid naturalism. (http://www.eyestorm.com/artists/profile/Alioune_Ba.html, 2010-04-26)
1Alisa LaGamma, Curator, Department of the Arts of Africa, Oceania, and the Americas Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Alisa LaGamma is Curator in the Department of the Arts of Africa, Oceania, and the Americas at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Among the exhibitions and publications she has been responsible for there are: The Essential Art of African Textiles: Design Without End (October 2008-March 2009), Eternal Ancestors: Art of the Central African Reliquary (October 2007-March 2008), Echoing Images: Couples in African Sculpture (February 2004), Genesis: Ideas of Origins in African Sculpture (November 2002-April 2003), Art and Oracle: Spirit Voices of Africa (April 2000), and Master Hand: Individuality and Creativity Among Yoruba Sculptors" (September 1997-February 1998). A 1988 graduate of the University of Virginia, Alisa LaGamma received her M.A. and Ph.D. in art history from Columbia University. Her 1995 dissertation: "The Art of the Punu Mukudj Masquerade: Portrait of an Equatorial Society" was based on a year of fieldwork in southern Gabon. Born in the Congo, Dr. LaGamma has traveled widely in sub-Saharan Africa and lived in Côte d’Ivoire, Senegal, Nigeria, Togo, and South Africa. She has taught as a visiting professor in the art history departments at Columbia University, Rutgers, the University of Pennsylvania, and New York University’s Institute of Fine of Fine Arts and is a member of the editorial board of the journal African Arts. A member of American Association of Museum Curators, she is currently serving as Chair of the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Forum of Curators, Conservators, and Scientists. (http://www.curatorialleadership.org/fellowspage2010.html, 2014-08-29)
1All makishi consist of "head" and "body" – the head is what we usually think of as the mask and the body is the various components that make up the costume. In addition, many makishi have accessories like whisks, weapons, or tools. These things can usually be pieced together into a whole at the museum. What is almost always missing from the museum collections are the special rhythms, songs, dances, and behaviours that belong to each character and make it complete. In the showcase you can see accessories from Makishi Masquerades among Ngangela and Chokw in Angola. Among many ethnic groups in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola and Zambia is a masquerade tradition called makishi. The hundred masked characters, depicting people, animals, or imaginary creatures, represent a variety of ancestral spirits with different characteristics. Some are haughty, others comical or menacing. Usually the masked character appears for different rites of passage, for example: when a boy becomes a man, at funerals or when a person assumes an office.
1All peoples’ hearts turn to the Communist Party. (The poster shows the building in Shanghai where the Communist Party was founded.) Yao Youxin, Jin Guangyu, Wang Dawen. Shanghai, 1976.
1A log hive for stingless bees, Yucatan paeninsula, Mexico. For thousands of years the Maya on the Yucatan paeninsula in Mexico have been experts on apiculture, a beekeeping based on the endemic stingless bee. Its honey and wax have still religious importance for conservative Maya. The honey is used, just as during the Precolumbian period (prior to the Spanish conquest in the 1500s), as an ingredience in balché. This slightly fermented beverage is served by the medicine man, the hmen, to the protective supernatural powers and to the participants in rain, maize and bee ceremonies. With the knowledge from generations behind and with the help of rituals the medicine man and the beekeeper, the yum cab, see for that the beehouse with its many log hives stays healthy for the bees. The Christian cross over the small entrance hole can also be interpreted as the four sacred directions. Some log hives have other symbols, for example a butterfly. Harmony must prevail in the surrounding nature for these small bees and other insects. During the 1900s the Maya beekeeping has, due to economic reasons, been increasingly pushed aside by modern beekeeping based on the introduced European honeybee. The stingless bee and the introduced bee are two different species and cannot be crossbreeded. It is doubtful that a conservative Maya would use the honey from the European honeybee for the ceremonies given by the medicine man. In later years the stingless bees have received increasing attention. The knowledge surrounding the beekeeping and the ceremonies given by the medicine man are a part of a living Maya culture. Both the old beekeeping of the Maya and the modern beekeeping belong to the cultural heritage of the Yucatan paeninsula. The stingless bees and the introduced European bees are now both a part of the same natural milieu. The old knowledge of the Maya about the stingless bees continues into our present time. The small stingless bee, the xunan cab or colel cab, the Lady Bee, still need the care from the medicine man and from the beekeeper. (Brunius 2013)
1Alphonso Sylvester Lisk-Carew (1887–1969) was active as a photographer in Sierra Leone from around 1905 to 1920–1925.
1Altar B, south-east side.
1Altar P, east side.
1Altar Table with images of Gods in Mangnang-gompa
1Although he was widely known, and was the past honored by various geology and research organizations, he was not affiliated with many organizations. He was a member of the Myerstown Reformed Church for many years. He was the last of his family and leaves a nephew, Charles P. Musser who resides on a farm several miles east of Myerstown on the Lebanon-Berks County line. [Lebanon Daily News, 15 March 1950]
1Always willing to share his knowledge, he was editor of Sharland's New Zealand Photographer for several years. He was a member of the Auckland Photographic Club and a foundation member and twice secretary of the Auckland Society of Arts. He lectured frequently, not only on photography but also on scientific subjects. Intensely interested in many aspects of science, particularly physics and geology, he was a fellow of the Geological Society of London. His most important lecture, 'The terraces of Rotomahana, New Zealand', was delivered to the society in London on 9 February 1887. Martin was a member of the Auckland Institute for 40 years, serving on its council from 1881 to 1892 and as president in 1889, and regularly spoke to members on both scientific and popular topics. He was also a frequent speaker at the YMCA and delivered a series of popular lectures on physics under the auspices of the Park Road Mutual Improvement Association. Josiah Martin died on 29 September 1916 at his home in Northcote, Auckland, aged 73. He was survived by three daughters, his wife having predeceased him. In 1958 his daughters presented his collection of negatives to the Auckland Institute and Museum. His photographs provide a record of changed landscapes and societies. Martin was one of the first photographers to realise the commercial potential of photography to encourage tourism, but he was also aware of the need for conservation of the landscape and of the role of photography in providing a documentary record. Above all else he gave leadership and guidance to the developing photographic profession in New Zealand. (http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/biographies/2m36/martin-josiah)
1Aly Ben Salem is behind two large collections in the museum. They consist of nearly 700 items from his home country, Tunisia. What was it like to collect objects from your own society, for a European museum? What did he pick out and what did he reject? Among all the textiles, clothes and costumes, jewelry, household articles and pottery from various ethnic groups and parts of Tunisia you catch a glimpse of a desire to present the region’s beauty and valor as well as its original artwork and multicultural character. In his description of the objects Ben Salem keeps repeating that Tunisian ethnic culture has developed by means of contacts with the Mediterranean area and the Middle East. Aly Ben Salem (1910-2001) was an artist, ethnologist, political activist and the Ambassador of Tunisia to Sweden. He arrived in Sweden in the 1930’s, he stayed on and married a textile artist, Kerstin Nilsson. In Ben Salem’s own art imaginative and colorful paintings on glass are often to be seen, and also sceneries in oil and gouache. He was strongly influenced by the folk art of his home region as well as by the school of French artist Henri Matisse.
1A manguiane.
1Ambikar Malai - Madurapuri. Few devotional songs on Goddess Meenakshi of the well known Madurai temple.
1A Mexican waring a rain-cape of "chino" type.
1Amongst these metal items are, amongst other things, four artefacts acquired during the steamship Vanadis's round-the-world voyage, 9 plates from Sven Hedin's expedition of 1929-35, and two artefacts collected in the 1970s by the museum's African curator Wilhelm Östberg.
1Among the Ashanti people of West Africa, gold has long been a commodity but is also a symbol of kinship, prosperity, and immortality. In the past, gold dust and gold nuggets were used as means of payment and weighed meticulously on small scales. Small, imaginatively designed weights were balanced by heaps of gold dust. Here we see weights with geometric decoration, as well as others in the form of a peanut, a ladder and a beetle. Beside the small weights lies a special kind of case or cover. Such cases are called kipande or "native passports". The inhabitants of British East Africa, now Kenya, were forced to carry passports like this during the colonial period. Inside the case were detailed the person's name, domicile, and fingerprints, much like on a dog collar. At any time, an official could open the case and check on someone's right to be in a certain place. The kipande passports are a clear expression of how colonialism impacted harshly on people's everyday life. This kipande was owned by Kiptilak from the village of Sibou in northern Marakwet.
1A mounted reindeer tungus woman.
1amphora (generalkatalogen) Polychrome canteen. Polacca Polychrome. 1800s. Late 1800s. Ca 1880-1900. Uncommon stylöe, for early tourist sale? (Enligt Kelley Hays-Gilpin, forskarbesök februari 2009)
1A Muncey-Delaware Man.
1A museum for the arts from Asia, Africa, America and Oceania.
1An arrow may lead you to think of war and combat but also of survival and hunting. There are over 9,000 arrows and spears stored at the museum! Why so many? Perhaps the gathering of arrows and weapons can be seen as a form of disarming the enemy. If so, the weapons in our exhibition are also trophies of war and spoils of victory.
1An attractive and popular pattern often develops many variations. The leopard pattern is depicted in different ways in different parts of Africa but can also have several different expressions within the same region. Sometimes they're round spots, sometimes they're triangles, rosettes or rhomboids. When a pattern becomes stylized and, through trade or migration, travels over large geographical areas, the original meaning can vanish. Are these objects from Central Africa examples of a leopard pattern? In Nigeria triangles - like those on the basket – symbolize leopard spots, and in Congo triangles occur alongside other symbols for the leopard in art. We don't know if these beautiful fabrics from the Kuba people can be linked to the leopard. But we know that common patterns on other Kuba textiles have names like "The Leopard's Spots" and "The Leopard on the Prowl in the Tree". Even the rosettes on the trunk, from the area around the lower Congo River, can symbolise the leopard's footprints. The four triangles of each rosette represent the leopard's four "strong" claws.
1A navajo indian family at meal time
1Ancient dipper (coiled ware). (generalkatalogen) Plainware bowl, vertikal handle. Hopi. Jeddito Corrugated. 1300s. 1400-1600. "Corrugated ware". (Enligt Kelley Hays-Gilpin, forskarbesök februari 2009)
1Ancient shell heaps of Damariscotta.
1Anders Bettum, Oslo.
1Anders Hellström, living in Mölndal had started to collect bronzes early. He obtained a substantual number of bronzes from Orvar Karlbeck but he also frequently purchased bronzes from the great European dealers. He thus built up the most important private collection of ancient Chinese bronzes in Sweden with a great number of unique pieces. After his death his large collection (some 1300 items) was bought by the museum. The most important bronzes were published by Karlgren in "Bronzes in the Hellström Collection" (Karlgren 1948), but a large part of his collection has remained unpublished. (Siggstedt, Mette, 2009, Bulletin, no 77, p. 68)
1Anders Ljungkvist.
1Andrea Davis Kronlund is an artist who uses the medium of photography. She holds a Masters of Fine Art from New York University and the International Center of Photography. She was further educated at both the Whitney Museum and the Bronx Museum in New York. Her work is informed by the notion of boundaries. Physical boundaries, such as the juncture between light and shadow; conceptual boundaries, such as the meeting of the personal, cultural and political, and perceptual boundaries, such as where the everyday goes over to the poetic. Her work has been presented at the Brooklyn Museum, the International Center of Photography, Bibliothéque Nationale Paris, Kungliga Biblioteket, Kulturhuset, and Galleri Erik Axl Sund in Stockholm, as well as various galleries. (http://www.andreadaviskronlund.com/about, läst 2019)
1Andreas Fridolin Weis Bentzon was born in Copenhagen on the 23rd of May 1936. He attended his university studies in this city where he entered the faculty of Ethnology of the University of Copenhagen. He was an associate member of the Dansk Folkmindesamling (Danish Institute of folklore research). He came to Sardinia for the first time in 1952 during his High School vacation and returned in 1953-1955. He was awarded a scholarship which allowed him an eight month sojourn in Sardinia in the years 1957-58. He wrote several articles for French, English and Danish magazines and he held programmes for Danish and Norwegian radio. Bentzon returned to Sardinia in 1962. During this three year sojourn he collected a great amount of information and he operated many recordings of the main Launeddas players of the time, such as Efisio Melis, Antonio Lara, Dionigi Burranca, Pasqualino Erriu, Aurelio Porcu, Giovanni Lai and many others. The results of this research allowed the publication of two volumes on Launeddas in 1969, which are of great importance for what concerns Sardinian and non-Sardinian ethno- musicological studies (The Launeddas: A Sardinian folk music instrument, 2 vol., Acta Musicologica Danica n.1, Akademisk Floras, Copenhagen 1969). Bentzon came to an untimely death in 1972. (sardinia.net, 2013-09-03)
1Andrzej Niwinski, Warzawa.
1An early version of the showcase "B22" for the exhibition "Magasinet - En etnografisk skattkammare". After the picture was taken, the content was slightly changed.
1An early version of the showcase "N" for the exhibition "Magasinet - En etnografisk skattkammare". After the picture was taken, the content was slightly changed.
3Angular Fragment
1A nicely made adze with sharp cutting edge ans some damage to one side
1An Igorot blanket.
1An igorot on his way from the coast 168 kms from Bontoc. In early days the Igorots had to carry everything they neede, expecially salt from the coast. No salt could be had elsewhere. (katalogkort)
1Animals – myth and reality menagerie [-ʃəri:´] (fr. ménagerie, in Old French meaning ´barn´, ´poultry yard’, from ménager, ‘housekeeping’), earlier the same as a zoo; today a collection of, primarily, wild and untamed animals that are traveled around to be exhibited in public. Such exposure of animals was forbidden in Sweden in 1917. A list of rules is to be found in the Regulation about the Protection of Animals (1988:539). (From the National Encyclopedia / Nationalencyklopedin) Take a tour in the Storage rooms and meet our animals: a tired camel, a tough crab, a band of spotty beauties and a chubby elephant god. The menagerie also gives room to a couple of mythological birds.
5Anklang-instrument av bambu.
1Anna henny schonstrom, Orre´s grand daughter.
1Anna Konvicka.
1Anna Stalteri Marcus.
1Annelie Eriksson
1Anne-Marie Hederus, gift med arkitekten Folke Hederus.
1Anne-Marie Hederus.
1Ann-Margret Alinder.
1Ann-Mari Didoff
1Ann Shaftel, accredited in 1997, conservator, specialization in thangkas. A Fellow of IIC and AIC. Began formal conservation training in 1972. After training at ICCROM in 1974, received a MSc in Conservation from Winterthur in 1978. Holds an MA in Asian Art History. Has worked with thangkas for 27 years, including a 15 year apprenticeship with a Tibetan painting master. Works as consultant and conservator for Buddhist monasteries, major museums and private clients. Services provided in English and Spanish. Private commissions accepted. (Canadian Association of Professional Conservators, 2018)
1An Oasis In The Badlands Sioux, 1905. Photograph shows Red Hawk, an Oglala warrior, sitting on a horse that is drinking from a small pond in the Badlands of North Dakota.
2An object is so much more than just its tangible aspects. The sound of pots being stirred, bows being drawn or a calling to prayers is missing in the Storage. When we look at musical instruments or dance attributes the silence becomes particularly evident. In the Storage, drumheads dry up, instruments fall silent and dance masks remain still. Is it possible to perceive the sounds and the live motion in objects no longer used for their purpose?
1An ornamented clay water pot (Sin. häliya), used in households all over Sri Lanka (Prof. M. H. Goonatilleka).
1Another type of a Ifugao woman.
1Ant.: "Carabao". Vigan, Hocos Sur. P.I.
1Ant.: A Filipino Funeral. This is quite common among them to photograph the dead. Vigan, Hocos Sur. P.I.
1Ant.: American teacher and Filipino teachers and aspirants from Abra and Hocos Sur Provinces. Vigan, Hocos Sur. P.I.
1Ant.: Filipino scouts officered by Americans. Vigan, Hocos Sur. P.I.
1Ant.: How we travel in this country. Vigan, Hocos Sur.
1Ant.: Making Indigo. Indigo plants grow from 1 to 2 feet high. They are then cut off near the ground and put in large vats containing lime and water. The action of the lime changes the green juice of the plants into a deep blue. After the water is drawn or evaporated off the commercial indigo is left as a sediment.
1Ant.: Plowing with the ox of the Philippines. Vigan, Hocos Sur. P.I.
1Ant.: Pressing sugar cane. Vigan, Hocos Sur. P.I.
1Ant.: Some of the Saints the Roman Catholic people here worship. Vigan, Hocos Sur. P.I.
1Ant.: Some Typical old Filipinos. Acting as the 12 Apostles in a Roman Catholic Ceremony or play. By for this is the best photograph of old aged Filipinos I have seen. From 40 to 90 years old. B. O. Peterson. Vigan, Hocos Sur. P.I.
1Ant.: The Igorotes are heathen. They live in the Inland Mountainous Provinces. Many of their tribes are head hunters and live in absolute savagery. Vigan, Hocos Sur. P.I.
1Ant.: Tinguian Maidens. The Tinguians are a heathen Tribe. During the last 4 months we have had four baptisms among them. B. O. Peterson. Vigan, Hocus Sur, P.I.
1Ant.: View of the "Plaza". Vigan, Hocos Sur, P.I.
1Anthony Snodgrass.
1Anthropomorphic seated clay figure/figurine with big breats on a square dark brown wood support. Genuine, not confirmed (as is the case with other objects in this collection). (SB, 2010-01-22).
1Antique Museum's collection of antique original articles highlights various aspects of the ancient Mediterranean cultures, where in particular Greece, Italy and Cyprus are represented. The collections, mostly ceramics, covers a period of more than 5000 years from Neolithic to the Late Antiquity period. The collections also includes Roman coins and Latin epitaph, which provides information about the major groups in society, including slaves and freed.
1Antique Museum in Lund were prevously located at Sölvegatan 2 but has now been incorporated in the Historical Museum.
1Antoine Hercule Romuald Florence (1804 – March 27, 1879) was a French-Brazilian painter and inventor, known as the isolate inventor of photography in Brazil, three years before Daguerre (but six years after Nicéphore Niépce), using the matrix negative/positive, still in use. According to Kossoy, who examined Florence's notes,[1] he referred to his process, in French, as photographie in 1834, at least four years before John Herschel coined the English word photography. (wikipedia, 2012-02-27)
1Antonio Beato (after 1832 — 1906), also known as Antoine Beato, was a British and Italian photographer. He is noted for his genre works, portraits, and views of the architecture and landscapes of Egypt and the other locations in the Mediterranean region. He was the younger brother of photographer Felice Beato (1832 - 1909), with whom he sometimes worked. Little is known of Antonio Beato's origins but he was probably born in Venetian territory after 1832, and later became a naturalized British citizen. His brother, at least, was born in Venice, but the family may have moved to Corfu, which had been a Venetian possession until 1814 when it was acquired by Britain. Because of the existence of a number of photographs signed "Felice Antonio Beato" and "Felice A. Beato", it was long assumed that there was one photographer who somehow managed to photograph at the same time in places as distant as Egypt and Japan. But in 1983 it was shown by Italo Zannier (Bennett 1996, 38) that "Felice Antonio Beato" represented two brothers, Felice Beato and Antonio Beato, who sometimes worked together, sharing a signature. The confusion arising from the signatures continues to cause problems in identifying which of the two photographers was the creator of a given image. Antonio often used the French version of his given name, going by Antoine Beato. It is presumed that he did so because he mainly worked in Egypt, which had a large French-speaking population. In 1853 or 1854 Antonio's brother and James Robertson formed a photographic partnership called "Robertson & Beato". Antonio joined them on photographic expeditions to Malta in 1854 or 1856 and to Greece and Jerusalem in 1857. A number of the firm's photographs produced in the 1850s are signed "Robertson, Beato and Co." and it is believed that the "and Co." refers to Antonio. In late 1854 or early 1855 James Robertson married the Beato brothers' sister, Leonilda Maria Matilda Beato. They had three daughters, Catherine Grace (born in 1856), Edith Marcon Vergence (born in 1859) and Helen Beatruc (born in 1861). Members of Ikeda Nagaoki's Japanese Mission to Europe in front of the Sphinx, Egypt, 1864. Albumen print. In July 1858 Antonio joined Felice in Calcutta. Felice had been in India since the beginning of the year photographing the aftermath of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Antonio also photographed in India until December 1859 when he left Calcutta, probably for health reasons, and headed for Malta by way of Suez. Antonio Beato went to Cairo in 1860 where he spent two years before moving to Luxor where he opened a photographic studio in 1862 and began producing tourist images of the people and architectural sites of the area. In the late 1860s, Beato was in partnership with Hippolyte Arnoux. Interestingly, in 1864, at a time when his brother Felice was living and photographing in Japan, Antonio photographed members of Ikeda Nagaoki's Japanese mission who were visiting Egypt on their way to France. Antonio Beato died in Luxor in 1906. His widow published a notice of his death while offering a house and equipment for sale. (wikipedia, 2010-08-26).
1Antony J. Gooszen, leader of the South New Guinea detachment of the Military Exploration Team, during the first military exploration of Dutch New Guinea in the period 1907-1915. This Royal Dutch East-Indian Army officer's interest in ethnography resulted in thousands of objects from East Indonesia reaching the museum. (syftar på Museum Volkenkunde i Nederländerna, www.rmv.nl)
1Aoife O’Brien received her Ph.D. in Anthropology/Art History from the Sainsbury Research Unit for the Arts of Africa, Oceania and the Americas at the University of East Anglia in England in 2011. Her doctoral research focused on material culture from the Solomon Islands in the early colonial period. Her research interests include ethnography, visual anthropology, museum anthropology, Pacific Island studies, and cultural encounters. She has previously worked for the National Museum of Ireland and recently she held an appointment as a Senior Research Fellow at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. In the spring of 2015 and 2016 she taught new courses for the Department of Art History and Archaeology. A lecture course titled “Introduction to the Arts of Oceania” was taught both years. In 2015 an advanced seminar titled “Power, Authority and Spirituality in Oceanic Art” was offered, with a Freshman Seminar entitled “Understanding Oceanic Art" taught the following year. She will return to Washington University in spring 2017 to repeat the course “Introduction to the Arts of Oceania” as well as another new Freshman seminar, “Imagining the Pacific: from Captain Cook to Disney’s Moana.” These courses represent the first time the Department has been able to offer courses in this exciting area, so well represented by distinguished local collections at our neighboring institution, The Saint Louis Museum. Dr. O'Brien's fellowship is shared with the Saint Louis Art Museum. During her tenure at Washington University, she is the Korff Postdoctoral Fellow in Oceanic Art; while working on her appointment at the Saint Louis Art Museum, she is the Mellon Postdoctoral Fellow in Oceanic Art. In fall 2014, Dr. O'Brien assisted with the exhibition Atua: sacred gods from Polynesia as well as undertaking research on the museum's Oceanic collections. Dr. O'Brien is continuing research on the museum’s Oceanic collections as well as preparing for a rotation of Polynesian objects in a new exhibition space. She is further preparing a temporary installation focusing on bird feather and bone objects from the Pacific, due to open in December 2016. This will provide an important expansion of the museum’s permanent display of Oceanic Art. (https://arthistory.artsci.wustl.edu/people/aoife-obrien, read 2017-10-09)
1Apache indian raw hide tobacco canteen.
1A pair of ornaments for arms or legs.
1A pair of slippers made of leather. Decorated with a purple tassel of yarn and sequins.
1A park of canoes at the bank of river in old gold-coast now call Ghana, two children, a dog and a woman standing between two basins of harvested fresh cassava tubers probably waiting for the canoe paddlers to go for further- processing of the cassava. (Gabriel Idagu Oko, Chief Curator, National Museum Of Lagos 2014)
1A pebble, probably natural.
1A picture showing canoes and people at the harbour, where there sale and buy grass for the roof of their native building. (Gabriel Idagu Oko, Chief Curator, National Museum of Lagos 2014)
1A piece of iron ore. Quite dense
1A piece of red wood. Missing at inventory 1959.
1A pig-sty in the Kisama country. The door is a long heavy pole which is put in between the ribs keeping the pigs in at night and protecting them against leopards and lions, which are fairly prominent in this region.
1A plan David Payne drew based on the dimensions of the one illustrated in a643014h from the State Library of NSW.
1Archaeologist, anthropologist and medicine doctor. As an anthropologist and archaeologist, he was a referent in Argentina. Began researching the cultures of Northwest Argentina in the decade of 1950's. He was a pioneer in the carbon dating system 14 (a method used to determine the "age" of a fossil), discovered that the fossils found in that area had eight thousand years. But do not stop there: continued to investigate until he managed to make a comprehensive cultural historical reconstruction of pre-Columbian cultures, incorporating economic and social organization, to studies of ceramics. Between 1984 and 1987 he was director of the Ethnographic Museum of the University of Buenos Aires (UBA). And from 1984 to 1989, chief of the Division Archaeological Museum of Natural Sciences of La Plata. In the decade of 80's, when the Academy not help him, he offered his encouragement and support to the then fledgling Forensic Anthropology Team, which identified the remains of many missings during the last dictatorship. He was awarded the Special Award of the American Archaeological Society, Between another awards. (www.findagrave.com, 2013-11-22)
1Archaeology as a science started up around the middle of the 19th century. The knowledge that the earth had a period of existence much longer than what had earlier been believed created a surge of interest to place all the finds that were dug out into their historical context. Towards the end of the 19th century field archaeology became more advanced. There was a growing interest in the less spectacular finds and in the search for a more unitary or holistic view of the early cultures. Archaeology, ethnography and anthropology were all tightly related. This means that our early collections are often a mixture of objects from archaeological excavations and ethnographical collecting activities. The items in this showcase are from Costa Rica. They were excavated and collected by Carl V Hartman (1862-1941).He was a pioneer in scientific archaeology in Costa Rica. Click to read more about the objects.
1Armband av järn, ornerad på ytterkanten, "Buret av en hövdings son".
1A rounded piece with a sharp edge done by polishing.
1A round stone, limestone, with a hole in the middle. These are used as money on Yap. Such limestone does not exist on Yap, it is brought from Palau - islands. - This is donated by head chief Liro to Captain Bjarke. Yap. (generalkatalog, my translation/MJ)
26Arrows, 26, from Basoko by the Congo River (No. 48 and 49 do likely belong to the quiver No 63). (generalkatalog)
1Arthur Posnansky (1873 - 1946), often called "Arturo", was a Bolivian engineer, explorer and archaeologist. He best remembered for popularizing the archaeological site of Tiwanaku. He was born in Vienna on April 13, 1873 and died in La Paz, Bolivia in 1946. Posnansky was known as a prolific writer and researcher. He was self-taught archaeologist and also wrote ethnography. He was a member and later President of the Sociedad Geografica de Bolivia, based in La Paz. (wikipedia, 2010-09-20)
1Arvid Kornelius Jorm (1892 – 1964) was a Swedish painter and graphic artist. Jorm was born Arvid Johansson in Gothenburg in 1892, the son of a shopkeeper. He changed his name to Arvid Jorm in 1919. He studied at the Valand School of Fine Arts in Gothenburg under Axel Erdmann and Birger Simonsson, and in Copenhagen under Astrid Holm. He did study trips to France, Italy and North Africa. His work included Italian landscapes and town pictures, and Swedish landscapes, coastal and harbour pictures. He worked in oils, watercolours, woodcuts, lithographs and etching. Jorm’s art decorated a number of buildings in Sweden including the ceiling of Skene Church, Skövde court house, and Liseberg in Gothenburg. He died in Gothenburg in 1964. (Wikipedia, 2015-02-24)
1Asa Havie or Esa-Ha-Bith. Milky Way (Asa Havi, Bird Chief), a Penateka Comanche; half-length, seated, holding bow. American Indian Select List number 108. (National Archives) Photograph (black and white) from an album; studio portrait of Milky Way (Esa-ha-bith), a Comanche chief, seated wearing a cloth shirt, a neck tie, dentalium ear ornaments, and a fur sash; he is holding a bow and a quiver of arrows; Washington DC, United States of America. (British Museum)
2A schoolgirl at the school of missionary
1A secured fenced compound of Ibo family with a lobe of charm tied a crossed the entrance to neutralised any evil force by enemy and as a security to the entire family in the compound. A is as well playing around the compound. (Gabriel Idagu Oko, Chief Curator, National Museum of Lagos 2014)
1Ashanti-Ghana Royal chief Omahene with title men and the followers, before him a little taxidermy of elephant decorated royal stool and the leopard skin as a foot mat for the OMAAHENE of AHANTI of old Ghana called gold coast. His might or authority is measurable with elephant and leopard therefore this must be present as his significance. (Gabriel Idagu Oko, Chief Curator, National Museum of Lagos 2014)
1Ashanti- Ghana royal drummers, for their chief called OMANHENE of manpong. (Gabriel Idagu Oko, Chief Curator, National Museum of Lagos 2014)
1A shaped stone with a perforation drilled into it. Looks like a pendant
1A side view of a residence fenced of man Ibo showing yam- band and a goat at the entrance. (Gabriel Idagu Oko, Chief Curator, National Museum of Lagos 2014)
5As long as
1As long as there have been museums there has been a problem of finding enough space. When things are sorted and placed in exhibitions and storages, there are some objects that will not fit anywhere. Very large artifacts are kept separately, forming their own category. The very largest of objects are kept in special storages. One of the Museum’s largest objects is a seventeen meter canoe from the South Pacific.
1A small tripod with appliqué "buttons" (somewhat reminiscent of Toltec, ca 900-1200 AD, vessels with spikes. (SB, 2010-01-21)
1A smooth ground stone with end damade two edges as a result of being used for pounding. 
1Assemble of Ashanti Ghana family with a woman caring a child with dreadlock hairs popular called dada by west African people, believed that the child hold a great promised to world by divine intervention. Such hairs must not be cut except gods or oracles have to be consulted and sacrifice is made. (Gabriel Idagu Oko, Chief Curator, National Museum of Lagos 2014)
1Associations which require initiation and have political, economic, and medical roles in a society, are called secret societies. Often the societies are thought to guard mysterious knowledge and power, that is only made available to the individual members gradually and after difficult tests. Many societies in Nigeria and Cameroon derive their mysterious power from the leopard, which also gave the societies their names, Ekpe or Ngbe. In the vast area that today forms the two Congo states, there were similar secret societies with the leopard's spirit as the source of their power. Nzobi and several other societies existed as late as the 1960s among the the Kuta people near Zanaga in Congo-Brazzaville. This was an association that offered its members the healing of various physical and spiritual illnesses. Central to the rituals were these figures which embody Nzobi and Ngo, the leopard spirit.
1A stirrup spout vessel depicting a sitting man, legs crossed with his hands resting on his knees. He is wearing a tunic and headgear with a neckshield. This is a typical depiction of a warrior. The handle with the spout goes from the neck to the upper part of the back. Red clay with reddish and yellowish slipper. A typical figurine from the Moche culture, found i the Chicama valley, northern coast of Peru.
1A stone bead
1A stool from Bom Jesus, showing how native art has degenerated through European influence.
1Astrology: Chart of a person at his birth.
1A summary of the Old Testament.
1At 26 years of age, Ruth Walfridsson arrived in Mukimbungu, the first station of the Mission Covenant Church of Sweden/Svenska Missionsförbundet in the Lower Congo. Two years later the newlywed “missionary bride” had become a widow. But she stayed on for many years and committed herself to the work of transforming spoken kikongo into a written language. Walfridsson was a teacher who also wrote school books and letters, and she was a translator of Biblical texts and other Christian literature. Even though it was considered improper for women to evangelize, she went off to remote villages all by herself. In her string boots and hat, high collared dress, carrying under her arm placards with pictures of Christ on, she must have formed an unusual sight. Ruth Walfridsson’s collection contains many objects from the every-day sphere: the handicraft products of school children, baskets for the transportation of peanuts, cauldrons for cooking and traditional costumes and ornaments made of plant fiber. She hoped for her “Congolese sisters” that they would begin to dress more like her. By way of this collection we get special insights into the lives of women in this upsetting period of colonization.
1At A Glance: Born: Sometime between 1880 and 1883 Died: December 20, 1984 Maiden Name: Dick Race/Nationality/Ethnic Background: Native American, (Northern Paiute tribe) Married: Jimmy George Children: Eight (several died in infancy) Primary City and County of Residence and Work: Fallon (Churchill County) Major Fields of Work: Folk arts (preserving Paiute crafts and customs) Other Role Identities: Wife, Mother, Household Domestic, Language Interpreter, and Tribal Elder.
1A tale about the four leather skirts: In the Kerio valley we take part in the celebration of the 10 years anniversary of a village church. It is a simple building; the floor is a slab of concrete and steel beams support a tin roof. The altar is built from local stone and the back wall is made of concrete, which runs at the height of one meter along the borders, like rink boards. The rest is open, to let the wind in to cool the air. The Kerio Valley is dry and hot. The church is located in the part of the Kerio valley where the marakwet people are living. It’s not far from the river border between them and the pokot, and the congregation has got members from both groups. That was one of the reasons why the church was placed here. There have always been thefts of cattle and honey between the communities and the Catholic Church wanted to contribute to good relations. It’s a good thing then to pray and sing together and to have a dialogue. But after the church was built, the relations have worsened. Automatic weapons have been introduced in the valley on a large scale; rich people in Nairobi and Kampala are providing gangs of plunderers with weapons. The gangs assault the dwellings and shoot blindly around them to make the inhabitants go away, they take the animals and bring them to gathering spots agreed on beforehand. Enormous trucks are waiting there and then the cattle are transported to the slaughterhouses. The income winds up in the pockets of the upper class in the cities, people who deserve to be called ruthless profiteers. That is why, at even intervals, war recurs in the Kerio valley. The daily life of this small congregation is unpredictable. Armed youths are keeping watch while the villagers work in the fields. The animals are hidden away in the nearby mountains. Now, however, it was a period of calm in the valley, the market places were open, you could visit each other and the congregation had the courage to prepare for their 10 years anniversary. There were lots of people in the church and many of them had dressed up for the occasion. Young women glistened with oil and were wearing colorful bead jewelry. Priests from other churches in the region had come visiting, and the mass was preceded by a large procession. The sound of drums. Traditional blessings were read out by a handful of elderly men. They were wearing high caps and mantles made of fur. In their hands the sinendet plant, always there at ceremonies, as a prayer for well-being and prosperity.
1A Tebbu man traditionally had a row of things hanging on his belt. There was always a sword, a knife, tinderbox with tinder and flint. He ideally had his pipe and a tobacco pouch with him. If his horse was nearby, he carried a halter and a whip in his hand. If his gun was at his side, a powder horn hung at his belt. Tebbu men were those who sewed, so he also had a small storage box for needles and sewing-thread with him. Today the sewing machine is a man's tool. The Tebbu Tibetans live in the long valleys north and south of the Yangtze River's northernmost tributary, Bailong Jiang. In the north, the over 5,000 meter-high peaks of the Min Shan Mountains separate their wooded valleys from the almost treeless landscape of the Yellow River. At the top of the Bailong Jiang valley, you are close to the Tibetan highlands. Tebbu Tibetans live mainly from livestock – yaks, horses, sheep and goats. Further down, you find a Chinese population and Tebbu Tibetans that are farmers. The Drakana valley's population live in a transitional zone and combine agriculture down in the valley with animal husbandry up in the mountains.
1Atlatl with throwing stick (spear cut in 2 pieces). Magdalenas near Texcoco.
1A Tsimshian Totem Pole from the 19th century from the American Northwest Coast. It's on display at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History on the National Mall in Washington DC.
1At the death of a human being, the body is left behind, to be handled by those left behind. What happens to the body varies geographically, culturally and often over time, just like the ideas and attitudes surrounding it. The body can be looked at with horror or with respect. But an attitude of indifference in relation to dead bodies can also be found. The dead could, just to take some examples, be immediately buried or cremated, partitioned or left in their entirety as food for vultures, or perhaps be mummified. A body can be kept for later scientific study or forensic investigations, and it might be frozen, in expectancy of the progress of medical science. Dead enemies are given a different treatment from that of the deceased from your own group. With the Australian aborigines and North American Indians the dead are surrounded by strong visions that they must be brought back to their own earth. With the Buddhists in northern Tibet and Mongolia ritual bowl or drums can be made from sculls, trumpets from thighbones and rosaries made from small parts of the skeleton. In certain Japanese museums are to be seen human skins with fantastic tattoos on. There are many kinds of objects are made from human hair. Much of this is mirrored in the archeological and ethnographic collections of the Museum of Ethnography.
1At the end of the 18th century the documents that formed part of the collection by Lorenzo Boturini were placed by order of the viceroy of Bucareli in the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico. There they also sheltered the sculptures of Coatlicue and the Sun Stone which would begin the tradition of constructing museums in Mexico...By 1906 the growth of the collections encouraged Justo Sierra to divide the stock of the National Museum, therefore the collections of natural history moved to the beautiful building of Chopo which was constructed specifically to shelter permanent expositions. The museum then received the name National Museum of Archaeology, History and Ethnography and was re-opened September 9th, 1910 in the presence of President Porfirio Díaz. In the year of 1924 the stock of the museum had increased to 52,000 objects and had received more than 250,000 visitors which conceded it the right to vote for the adjudication of the Nobel Prize. It was considered one of the most interesting and prestigious museums of the world. On December 13, 1940 they moved the history collections to the Castle of Chapultepec, and the museum changed its name to what it is now: The National Museum of Anthropology. The construction of the actual museum began in February 1963 in the fields of Chapultepec. As it was mentioned in the Architecture subsection, the project was coordinated by architect Pedro Ramírez Vázquez and assisted by Rafael Mijares and Jorge Campuzano. With the motive of the inauguration of the National Museum of Anthropology in mind, the Secretary of Public Education commissioned the songwriter Carlos Chávez the creation of a musical piece titled "Resonances". This piece would be released the same day of the inauguration of the museum. (Wikipedia 2014-09-30)
1At the entrance to the yard of a hut in Ulungu on the Kwanza River near Colombo, observe the stool to the left and the trough near the entrance made like a canoe used for feeding the pigs.
1At the foot of Kilimandjaro. South A-kamba. Professor Lindblom's notes: Kamba village at the north end of the lake Jipe, at the foot of Kilimandjaro, outside the proper Ukamba.
1At the time of collection the objects were classified as fire tongs or magic wands. Closely related tongs made of iron, called chimpta or chimta, are being used in today’s India. Holy men in the Nath sect used them to handle Dhuni, the sacred fire. Rings at one of the ends of the tongs, sometimes combined with small bells fixed along the sides of the tongs, are used to produce sound. In this way, the tongs also become a kind of ritual music instruments. In addition, they are popular in Punjabi folk music. (AL, 2012)
1At the time of David Hummel's trip to the Drakana Valley, all kinds of brass artefacts hung in rows above the kitchen fireplace. There were ladles to scoop up food with or pour water, milk, or tea. There were small ladles to fry chilli or carry embers in, and a spoon to dole out flour. The Tebbu Tibetans live in the long valleys north and south of the Yangtze River's northernmost tributary, Bailong Jiang. In the north, the over 5,000 meter-high peaks of the Min Shan Mountains separate their wooded valleys from the almost treeless landscape of the Yellow River. At the top of the Bailong Jiang valley, you are close to the Tibetan highlands, and Tebbu Tibetans live mainly from livestock – yaks, horses, sheep and goats. Further down, you find a Chinese population and Tebbu Tibetans that are farmers. The Drakana valley's population live in a transitional zone and combine agriculture down in the valley with animal husbandry up in the mountains. Culturally, they exist in the borderlands between Chinese and Tibetan culture, and this is observable in the artefacts from David Hummel's collection.
1Attila Lóránt is a Hungarian photographer, author and founder of the Disappearing Cultures Foundation. He began to build up a visual document about various native cultures in 2002. In his first works he offers us glimpses of the Nilo-Hamite cultures in East Africa and also of cultures from the Swahili coast region. He published East Africa is more than a safari in 2003. His project about Indian cultures in South America started in 2003 and as a result National Geographic has published a 312-page book titled: Indian cultures along the Amazon and in the Andes. The photobook titled Wappony was published in 2007. (arte-amazonia.com, läst 2017))
1A tungus (a hunter with a bird in his hand) and a tungus woman (holding a fish).
1A typical Chinese landscape on a rainy day. On top of hill pagoda and buddhist temple. On bridge mr Magel and a buddhist monk.
1A typical door decoration of a grocery shop in Shanghai.
1A typical object for Tibetans is a travelling-set for boiling tea. You carry it with you when out in the fields, hiking to the upland pastures, or with the animals out in the mountains. From the worn and greased leather bag is taken an aluminium water-pot, to be put on the fire of twigs and yak dung. Roughly-pounded brick-tea is in one bag, roasted barley flour, tsampa, in another, slightly rancid yak butter in a small wooden box. In the pot is boiled a hot tea, lightly reminiscent of broth. The Tebbu Tibetans live in the long valleys north and south of the Yangtze River's northernmost tributary, Bailong Jiang. In 1930, David Hummel was able to take himself up to their remote villages. With the help of the Swedish American missionary Edvin Carlson, he was able to acquire more than two hundred artefacts. They present a unique collection of Tebbu Tibetan material culture. In 1991 and 1997, the museum's Asian curator visited the Drakana Valley, partly to study the Tebbu Tibetan's social system, partly to complete the collection David Hummel had made.
1Atzompa on top of the hill just north of Monte Alban.
2Avenue of the Sphinxes, between the temples of Luxor and Karnak.
1A very usual occupation. The Igorots are invariably lazy. (katalogkort)
1A washedpur stone. Non-cultural
1A water buffalo led up to be slaughtered at a ifugao canao (feast). The animal is led up and tied to a couple of cross posts and at a given signal the people rush in and literally hack him to pieces.
1Awell to do ifugao. Note belt made out of bone. Also necklace.
1A woman is demonstrating how to cook either food or medicine and people gathered to appeared in the photograph. (Gabriel Idagu Oko, Chief Curator, National Museum of Lagos 2014)
1A woman walking toward her house. (Gabriel Idagu Oko, Chief Curator, National Museum of Lagos 2014)
3A wooden arch build by the side of river Niger by the Onitsha people for fishing. (Gabriel Idagu Oko, Chief Curator, National Museum of Lagos 2014)
1Axe, rather sharp edges, text on axe says it is from "Vidja" and from "gånggrifttiden" (Scandinavia, 3500-3000 BC). The axe reminds of axes from Precolumbian America. (SB, 2010-01-22)
1Axelmantel för lama. Ett rutverk av vitt siden på bottentyg av rött ylle. sidenet rikt broderat.
1Axel Wilhelm Eriksson (24 August 1846–5 May 1901) was a Swedish ornithologist, settler and trader in what is now Namibia. He was born in Vänersborg, in Sweden. Eriksson went to South-West Africa in 1866 (before Germany had established its colony of German South West Africa in 1884) to serve out a three-year apprenticeship to Charles John Andersson. In 1871, with Swede Anders Ohlsson, he established a brewery at Omaruru. Eriksson established a trading post there, which flourished and by 1878 employed about forty whites. Eriksson's business was based upon long-distance trading between southern Angola and Cape Colony, which necessitated the establishment of regional trade routes.[2] He also built up an extensive bird collection, specimens coming from South West Africa, Angola and the Transvaal (now Gauteng Province in South Africa), the bulk of which has since been donated to the municipal museum in Vänersborg. His activities gained much respect from a wide range of communities, including native and Boer, over a large geographic area. He was known to the Herero as Karuwapa Katiti ("the small white person"). Axel Eriksson died on 5 May 1901 at Urupupa farm. It was said that "when Karuwapa died, the goodness in the country died as well". His grave at Rietfontein, thirty kilometres south west of Grootfontein, was made a national monument in 1978; a sign beside the grave reads: "This is the last resting place of Axel Eriksson, well known traveller, hunter, trader and pioneer, through whose intercession the Cape Government sent food to the distressed thirstland trekkers in 1879 thus rescuing various families from certain death".[3] Despite the grave's status, the site is virtually inaccessible and is not maintained, with its boundary fence no longer intact (as at October 2014). Eriksson married Frances "Fanny" Stewardson, in 1871 and the couple had two sons, Axel Eriksson (1871-1924 (died at Gaideb, Warmbad)), a noted painter[5] and Andrew Albert Eriksson (1876-?), who became a priest in Sweden. There was also a daughter, Maud Alice Eriksson (who married in Cape Town and moved to England). Eriksson's two brothers, Carl and Gustav also migrated to South-West Africa.[6] Eriksson divorced Frances and subsequently married a Herero princess. The couple had a son, Jacob (born around 1884), who became a farmer in what is now Mozambique (his fate is not known). (Wikipedia, 2015-07-22)
1A young Bambeiro woman bringing home wood to my house in Melange. Her husband get´s the pay while she does the work.
1A young Elema man outdoors wearing an eharo mask that has a representation of a shark; he also wears a plant fibre shoulder coverings and cloth wrap, as well as having his body painted; grass and hills behind him; Purari Delta, Papua New Guinea. (British Museum)
2A young Ibo married lady balance for photographed behind the dilapidated building with charm near her. And the other picture show an elderly woman with a traditional title of otu-odu (head of family) standing before her harvested cocoyam. She tired hair- tie, table and sack held closed to her armpit, tie wrapper and put on an ivory anklet as a titled holder. (Gabriel Idagu Oko, Chief Curator, National Museum of Lagos 2014)
1A young soldier in light blue uniform seems to grow out of a field of red flowers. He is wearing a half-witted smile on his face and a red armband with the characters "Red army" around his upper left arm. He is carrying a gun on his back.
1A Young Woman Book-Peddler Edo period about 1725 Artist Torii Kiyonobu I (Japanese, 1664–1729) Woodblock print (urushi-e); ink on paper, with hand-applied color and nikawa Torii Kiyonobu hitsu 鳥居清信筆 (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston)