Carlotta - the museum database

Data elementBeskrivning, engelska

1<0x0a><0x0a>Miguel's artwork and celebrity caricatures have been featured in The New Yorker and Vanity Fair magazines. The linear nature of his drawing style was highly influential to other caricaturists such as Al Hirschfeld. Miguel's first book of caricatures The Prince of Wales and Other Famous Americans was a hit, though not all his subjects were thrilled that his sharp, pointed wit was aimed at them. He immediately fell in love with the Harlem jazz scene, which he frequented with Rosa and friends including Eugene O'Neill and Nickolas Muray. He counted many notables among his friends including Zora Neale Hurston, Langston Hughes and W.C. Handy for whom he also illustrated books. Miguel's caricatures of the jazz clubs were the first of their kind printed in Vanity Fair. He managed to capture the spirit of the Harlem Renaissance in much of his work as well as in his book, Negro Drawings. He did not consider these caricatures, but serious drawings of people, music and a culture he loved. Covarrubias also did illustrations for The Heritage Press including Uncle Tom's Cabin, Green Mansions, Herman Melville's Typee, and Pearl Buck's All Men Are Brothers as well as publisher Alfred & Charles Boni's Frankie and Johnny for a young writer who would become a good friend and film director named John Huston. Today, these editions are very sought after by collectors. He collaborated in Austrian Artist Wolfgang Paalen's journal Dyn from 1942-44. Additionally his advertising, painting and illustration work brought him international recognition including gallery shows in Europe, Mexico and the United States as well as awards such as the 1929 National Art Directors' Medal for painting in color for his work on a Steinway & Sons piano advertisement. Miguel and Rosa married in 1930 and they took an extended honeymoon to Bali with the National Art Directors' Medal prize money where they immersed themselves in the local culture, language and customs. Miguel returned to Southeast Asia (Java, Bali, India, Vietnam) in 1933, as a Guggenheim Fellow with Rosa whose photography would become part of Miguel's book, Island of Bali. The book and particularly the marketing for months surrounding its release, contributed to the 1930s Bali craze in New York. Rosa and Miguel returned to live in Mexico City where he continued to paint, illustrate and write. Their home, Tizapán, would become a hub for visitors from around the world including the likes of Nickolas Muray, Dolores del Río, and Nelson Rockefeller. He taught ethnology at the Escuela Nacional de Antropología e Historia and was appointed artistic director and director of administration for a new department at the Palacio de Bellas Artes, the National Palace of Fine Arts. His mandate was to add an Academy of Dance - a task to which Rosa with her dance and choreography background was most valuable. Miguel recruited friend and dancer José Limón who brought his dance company from New York City for the inaugural season in 1950, taught at Bellas Artes and helped arrange for international exposure of this new Mexican modern dance company. During Miguel's tenure traditional Mexican dance was not only researched, documented and preserved but by this research into its roots, it helped usher in a new era in contemporary Mexican dance. Covarrubias is known for his analysis of the pre-Columbian art of Mesoamerica, particularly that of the Olmec culture, and his theory of Mexican cultural diffusion to the north, particularly to the Mississippian Native American Indian cultures. His analysis of iconography presented a strong case that the Olmec predated the Classic Era years before this was confirmed by archaeology. His interest in anthropology went beyond the arts and beyond the Americas—Covarrubias lived in and wrote a thorough ethnography of the "Island of Bali". He shared his appreciation of foreign cultures with the world through his drawings, paintings, writings, and caricatures. (wikipedia, 2011-02-01)
1"la Caixa", formally Caixa d'Estalvis i Pensions de Barcelona (Spanish: Caja de Ahorros y Pensiones de Barcelona), is currently Europe’s leading savings bank and Spain's third largest financial institution, with a network of over 5,500 branches, more than 8,100 ATMs, a workforce in excess of 27,000 and more than 10.7 million customers. Today's "la Caixa" is the result of the July 27, 1990 merger between the Caja de Pensiones para la Vejez y de Ahorros de Cataluña y Baleares, founded in 1904, and the Caja de Ahorros y Monte de Piedad de Barcelona, founded in 1844. From the beginning, "la Caixa" focused on savings for families and offering its customers security in their old age, when this type of social provision did not yet exist in Spain. Owing to its origins, it is a financial institution, albeit not for profit and charitable and social in nature, with a private board of trustees, independent of any other company or institution. (wikipedia, 2011-05-19)
2"The American star ´Anita Stewart´ learning how to dance the Tahitian hula" Tahiti. (katalogkort)
12 photos
1A Peruvian Pelican at Pan de Azúcar National Park, Atacama Region, Chile.
1A Rodiya woman carrying water, Ceylon.
1A.M. Duggan-Cronin (1874-1954) Alfred Duggan-Cronin was born on 17 May 1874 at Innishannon in Ireland. In 1897 he came out to South Africa and started his career with De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd. In 1904 he bought a box camera and began taking photographs. He taught himself the techniques and the first indigenous people he photographed were migrant workers in the compounds. A realisation and awareness that their traditional way of life was rapidly changing led Duggan-Cronin to contemplate going out into the field to capture the people in their homes, and their way of life before it was lost completely or changed irrevocably. Miss Maria Wilman, the first director of the McGregor Museum in Kimberley, encouraged him in this enterprise and assisted with obtaining funding. Several later expeditions were funded by the Carnegie Corporation. In 1919 Duggan-Cronin made his first expedition which was to the Langeberg (in the Northern Cape), where he photographed the San people living there. Over the next twenty years he would undertake on average two journeys a year to many parts of South Africa. He also travelled to the neighbouring countries: Lesotho, Swaziland, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Zambia and Mozambique. In all he clocked up over 128 000 kilometres on these travels and took over 6000 photographs. Duggan-Cronin died in 1954 and is buried in Kimberley. His collection was left to the people of Kimberley, and is in the care of the McGregor Museum. It is housed at the Gallery which bears his name. Made available through the beneficence of De Beers the Duggan-Cronin Gallery was opened in 1938, serving as both a place to display his work and as his home. When General J.C. Smuts visited the Gallery he remarked that: ‘you can die now Cronin, your monument is raised’. Duggan-Cronin replied: ‘I would like to live a little longer to enjoy my monument, General, if I may!’. (http://www.my-kimberley.co.za/get%20busy/articles.php?id=127, 2010-09-03)
1Adolfo de Hostos (born 1887) served in the mid twentieth century, from January 1936 to 1950, as the fifth Official Historian of Puerto Rico, a position created in March, 1903, by the Puerto Rico Legislature. De Hostos had served in the Army and as military aide to Gov. Arthur Yeager before his appointment by Gov. Blanton Winship. His most prominent publication is "Ciudad Murada", the history of the city of San Juan, Puerto Rico, the United States' oldest city. After his retirement in 1950, the position of Official Historian remained vacant for 43 years, until the Puerto Rico House of Representatives approved in 1993 Senate Concurrent Resolution 14, authored by Sen. Kenneth McClintock, designated Dr. Barbosa. De Hostos made an important contribution to pre-Columbian archaeology with his book titled Anthropological Papers: Based Principally on Studies of the Prehistoric Archaeology and Ethnology of the Greater Antilles published in 1941. (wikipedia, 2011-06-15)
1Adrien Taunay the Younger (1803 - 5 January 1828) was a French painter and draftsman. He was born in Paris in 1803, the son of history and genre painter Nicolas-Antoine Taunay (1755-1830). Adrien moved to Rio de Janeiro in 1816, accompanying his father, who was a member of the French Artistic Mission. Adrien was the junior draftsman aboard the French vessel of exploration Uranie, commanded by Captain Louis de Freycinet. During the ship's 22 day stay in Hawaii in 1819, Adrien Taunay working with the official artist Jacques Arago (1790-1855), produced many portraits and natural history drawings. They depicted the local people and landscape at a time when Hawaii was becoming a whaling center and part of the trade route with China. After completion of this voyage, Adrien returned to Rio de Janeiro in 1820, and devoted himself to the study of arts and languages. He succeeded Johann Moritz Rugendas (1802-1858), to the position of first draughtsman of the exhibition led by the Consul Georg Heinrich von Langsdorff (1774-1852), which between the years 1825 to 1829 navigated the rivers of the Brazilian states of São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso and Pará. After traveling for two years, they arrived in Cuiabá, where they remained for approximately a year. Langsdorff then decided to split the expedition into two groups, which, after following different routes, would meet in the city of Belém do Pará. The group consisting of Adrien Taunay and the botanist Ludwig Riedel (1791-1861) had the task of following the rivers Guaporé and Madeira. On this journey, they reached Vila Bela de Mato Grosso, in December 1827. After a number of trips around the settlements and having separated from Ludwig Riedel|Riedel, Adrien Taunay got lost in the forest. He finally managed to locate the bank of the Guaporé river, but drowned while trying to cross it in January 1828. The Honolulu Academy of Arts and the National Library of Australia are among the public collections holding works of Adrien Taunay the Younger. (wikipedia, 2012-02-27)
1Afong (A Fong, Ah Fong, Lai Afong), Hong Kong Chinese studio whose founder apparently started in the profession c. 1859, leaving his son to continue c. 1890. The firm continued into the third generation, until 1941. As with most Chinese studios, the man behind the commercial name is elusive. However, his business activities are clear, because from the mid-1860s he was advertising heavily in the local foreign-language press. Aiming, like his fellow countrymen, at the most profitable part of the business, he endeavoured to take photography out of Westerners' hands, undercutting their prices while offering similar products. Afong is one of the few Chinese photographers who did views; his Hong Kong series compare with Floyd's or Thomson's in subject matter (if not quality). While Afong the man seems to have owned the studio, how much of a photographer he himself was is unclear, since he employed Western assistants/managers, as well as Chinese staff. Ultimately, as in all Chinese ports, he and his colleagues in Hong Kong remained masters of the game. (Régine Thiriez, www.answers.com, 2012-04-25)
1aids quilt
1Akha Apee village Our final night in the mountains, staying with the friendliest villagers so far. Akha Apee village is a mix of old and new; they have electricity (including a TV and a ‘fridge!), but their beliefs are still firmly rooted in old Akha ways, and they remain very traditional. They hadn’t seen any strangers in town for over two years, and hence it caused quite a commotion, especially among the children. Whether we brushed our teeth or scratched our noses seemed to be a source of huge fascination to them! After dinner, there was plenty of singing and dancing until the late hours, whilst the men indulged in a little opium! (Ethical photography, flickr)
1Alcide Charles Victor Marie Dessalines d'Orbigny (6 September 1802 - 30 June 1857) was a French naturalist who made major contributions in many areas, including zoology (including malacology), palaeontology, geology, archaeology and anthropology. D'Orbigny was born in Couëron (Loire-Atlantique), the son of a ship's physician and amateur naturalist. The family moved to La Rochelle in 1820, where his interest in natural history was developed while studying the marine fauna and especially the microscopic creatures that he named "foraminiferans". In Paris he became a disciple of the geologist Pierre Louis Antoine Cordier (1777-1861) and Georges Cuvier. All his life, he would follow the theory of Cuvier and stay opposed to Lamarckism. South American eraD'Orbigny travelled on a mission for the Paris Museum, in South America between 1826 and 1833. He visited Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Chile, Bolivia and Peru and returned to France with an enormous collection of more than 10,000 natural history specimens. He described part of his findings in La Relation du Voyage dans l'Amérique Méridionale pendant les annés 1826 à 1833 (Paris, 1824-47, in 90 fascicles. His contemporary, Charles Darwin called this book "one of the great monuments of science in the 19th century". The other specimens were described by zoologists at the museum. He had numerous interactions with Darwin, and named certain species after Darwin; for example d'Orbigny assigned the common name Darwin's rhea to the South American bird Rhea pennata.[1] [edit] 1840 and later On the shore of Rio Magdalen. Image from Voyages pittoresque dans les deux AmériquesIn 1840, d'Orbigny started the methodical description of French fossils and published La Paléontologie Française (8 vols). In 1849 he published a closely related Prodrome de Paléontologie Stratigraphique, intended as a "Preface to Stratigraphic Palaeontology", in which he described almost 18,000 species, and with biostratigraphical comparisons erected geological stages, the definitions of which rest on their stratotypes. In 1853 he became professor of palaeontology at the Paris Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, publishing his Cours élémentaire that related paleontology to zoology, as a science independent of the uses made of it in stratigraphy.[2] The chair of paleontology was created especially in his honor. The d’Orbigny collection is housed in the Salle d'Orbigny and is often visited by experts.[3] He described as first the geological timescales and defined numerous geological strata, still used today as chronostratigraphic reference such as Toarcian, Callovian, Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian, Aptian, Albian and Cenomanian. He died in the small town of Pierrefitte-sur-Seine, near Paris. (wikipedia, 2012-03-13)
1Alfred Métraux was born in Lausanne, Switzerland. Metraux spent much of his childhood in Argentina where his father was a well known surgeon resident in Mendoza. His mother was a Georgian from Tbilisi. He received his secondary and university education in Europe, at the Classical Gymnasium of Lausanne, the Ecole Nationale des Chartes in Paris, the Ecole Nationale des Langues Orientales (Diplome, 1925). The Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes (Diplome, 1927) and the Sorbonne (Docteur es Lettres, 1928). He also studied in Sweden, in Gothenburg’s Hogskola, and did research at the Göteborg Museum. Among his teachers were Marcel Mauss, Paul Rivet, and Erland von Nordenskiold. While he was still a student he entered into correspondence with Father John Cooper who introduced him to the American school of cultural anthropology. It is said that Father Cooper did not realize at first that his scholarly correspondent was only 19 and 20 years old. They actually met much later, when Metraux came to the United States; but Father Cooper seems to have had considerable influence on Alfred Metraux’s thought. Metraux combined in his work the best of both the European and the American tradition of historical anthropology. (wikipedia, 2010-08-16)
1Alioune Ba is a key figure in the development of art photography in Mali, Alioune Ba’s monochrome images focus on tone, texture and pictorial rhythm. Undermining Western preconceptions of the Sahel region by presenting it as a repository of quiet beauty, many of his photographs offer graceful insights into village life. Ba’s images of exquisitely decorated bodies, meanwhile, make visual poetry from local rituals by mixing abstract patterns with vivid naturalism. (http://www.eyestorm.com/artists/profile/Alioune_Ba.html, 2010-04-26)
1Although he was widely known, and was the past honored by various geology and research organizations, he was not affiliated with many organizations. He was a member of the Myerstown Reformed Church for many years. He was the last of his family and leaves a nephew, Charles P. Musser who resides on a farm several miles east of Myerstown on the Lebanon-Berks County line. [Lebanon Daily News, 15 March 1950]
1Andreas Fridolin Weis Bentzon was born in Copenhagen on the 23rd of May 1936. He attended his university studies in this city where he entered the faculty of Ethnology of the University of Copenhagen. He was an associate member of the Dansk Folkmindesamling (Danish Institute of folklore research). He came to Sardinia for the first time in 1952 during his High School vacation and returned in 1953-1955. He was awarded a scholarship which allowed him an eight month sojourn in Sardinia in the years 1957-58. He wrote several articles for French, English and Danish magazines and he held programmes for Danish and Norwegian radio. Bentzon returned to Sardinia in 1962. During this three year sojourn he collected a great amount of information and he operated many recordings of the main Launeddas players of the time, such as Efisio Melis, Antonio Lara, Dionigi Burranca, Pasqualino Erriu, Aurelio Porcu, Giovanni Lai and many others. The results of this research allowed the publication of two volumes on Launeddas in 1969, which are of great importance for what concerns Sardinian and non-Sardinian ethno- musicological studies (The Launeddas: A Sardinian folk music instrument, 2 vol., Acta Musicologica Danica n.1, Akademisk Floras, Copenhagen 1969). Bentzon came to an untimely death in 1972. (sardinia.net, 2013-09-03)
1Antoine Hercule Romuald Florence (1804 – March 27, 1879) was a French-Brazilian painter and inventor, known as the isolate inventor of photography in Brazil, three years before Daguerre (but six years after Nicéphore Niépce), using the matrix negative/positive, still in use. According to Kossoy, who examined Florence's notes,[1] he referred to his process, in French, as photographie in 1834, at least four years before John Herschel coined the English word photography. (wikipedia, 2012-02-27)
1Antony J. Gooszen, leader of the South New Guinea detachment of the Military Exploration Team, during the first military exploration of Dutch New Guinea in the period 1907-1915. This Royal Dutch East-Indian Army officer's interest in ethnography resulted in thousands of objects from East Indonesia reaching the museum. (syftar på Museum Volkenkunde i Holland, www.rmv.nl)
1Arabic Machine Manuscript (Orient manuscript 3306) (this image is cropped and part of the text at the top is not showing)
1Archaeologist, anthropologist and medicine doctor. As an anthropologist and archaeologist, he was a referent in Argentina. Began researching the cultures of Northwest Argentina in the decade of 1950's. He was a pioneer in the carbon dating system 14 (a method used to determine the "age" of a fossil), discovered that the fossils found in that area had eight thousand years. But do not stop there: continued to investigate until he managed to make a comprehensive cultural historical reconstruction of pre-Columbian cultures, incorporating economic and social organization, to studies of ceramics. Between 1984 and 1987 he was director of the Ethnographic Museum of the University of Buenos Aires (UBA). And from 1984 to 1989, chief of the Division Archaeological Museum of Natural Sciences of La Plata. In the decade of 80's, when the Academy not help him, he offered his encouragement and support to the then fledgling Forensic Anthropology Team, which identified the remains of many missings during the last dictatorship. He was awarded the Special Award of the American Archaeological Society, Between another awards. (www.findagrave.com, 2013-11-22)
1Arthur Posnansky (1873 - 1946), often called "Arturo", was a Bolivian engineer, explorer and archaeologist. He best remembered for popularizing the archaeological site of Tiwanaku. He was born in Vienna on April 13, 1873 and died in La Paz, Bolivia in 1946. Posnansky was known as a prolific writer and researcher. He was self-taught archaeologist and also wrote ethnography. He was a member and later President of the Sociedad Geografica de Bolivia, based in La Paz. (wikipedia, 2010-09-20)
1Arvid Kornelius Jorm (1892 – 1964) was a Swedish painter and graphic artist. Jorm was born Arvid Johansson in Gothenburg in 1892, the son of a shopkeeper. He changed his name to Arvid Jorm in 1919. He studied at the Valand School of Fine Arts in Gothenburg under Axel Erdmann and Birger Simonsson, and in Copenhagen under Astrid Holm. He did study trips to France, Italy and North Africa. His work included Italian landscapes and town pictures, and Swedish landscapes, coastal and harbour pictures. He worked in oils, watercolours, woodcuts, lithographs and etching. Jorm’s art decorated a number of buildings in Sweden including the ceiling of Skene Church, Skövde court house, and Liseberg in Gothenburg. He died in Gothenburg in 1964. (Wikipedia, 2015-02-24)
1Axel Wilhelm Eriksson (24 August 1846–5 May 1901) was a Swedish ornithologist, settler and trader in what is now Namibia. He was born in Vänersborg, in Sweden. Eriksson went to South-West Africa in 1866 (before Germany had established its colony of German South West Africa in 1884) to serve out a three-year apprenticeship to Charles John Andersson. In 1871, with Swede Anders Ohlsson, he established a brewery at Omaruru. Eriksson established a trading post there, which flourished and by 1878 employed about forty whites. Eriksson's business was based upon long-distance trading between southern Angola and Cape Colony, which necessitated the establishment of regional trade routes.[2] He also built up an extensive bird collection, specimens coming from South West Africa, Angola and the Transvaal (now Gauteng Province in South Africa), the bulk of which has since been donated to the municipal museum in Vänersborg. His activities gained much respect from a wide range of communities, including native and Boer, over a large geographic area. He was known to the Herero as Karuwapa Katiti ("the small white person"). Axel Eriksson died on 5 May 1901 at Urupupa farm. It was said that "when Karuwapa died, the goodness in the country died as well". His grave at Rietfontein, thirty kilometres south west of Grootfontein, was made a national monument in 1978; a sign beside the grave reads: "This is the last resting place of Axel Eriksson, well known traveller, hunter, trader and pioneer, through whose intercession the Cape Government sent food to the distressed thirstland trekkers in 1879 thus rescuing various families from certain death".[3] Despite the grave's status, the site is virtually inaccessible and is not maintained, with its boundary fence no longer intact (as at October 2014). Eriksson married Frances "Fanny" Stewardson, in 1871 and the couple had two sons, Axel Eriksson (1871-1924 (died at Gaideb, Warmbad)), a noted painter[5] and Andrew Albert Eriksson (1876-?), who became a priest in Sweden. There was also a daughter, Maud Alice Eriksson (who married in Cape Town and moved to England). Eriksson's two brothers, Carl and Gustav also migrated to South-West Africa.[6] Eriksson divorced Frances and subsequently married a Herero princess. The couple had a son, Jacob (born around 1884), who became a farmer in what is now Mozambique (his fate is not known). (Wikipedia, 2015-07-22)
2Bark painting from Australia.
1Being together is about...
1Between 1916 and 1955 the Swiss anthropologist and collector Paul Wirz (1892–1955) took several thousand photographs during his research trips to New Guinea, where he stayed with the Marind-anim of the south coast, at Lake Sentani, in the highlands with the Western Dani and the Enga, at the Papuan Gulf (Gogodala), and in the Sepik and Maprik areas. For his black-and-white–dominated photography Wirz used first gelatin dry-plate technology, later roll film. The photographs served as illustrations for his numerous publications, and, sometimes hand-colored, as lantern slides for his lectures. In content, Wirz believed that photography should above all document and conserve cultural aspects of the life of “men of nature,” that is, societies that were barely influenced by Western culture, colonialism, and missionary work. He thus focused on portraits of individuals and groups to fix anthropological and ethnograpical information - such as physique, decoration, clothing—and on visible socioreligious signs, because for him the traditional religious structure formed the foundation of culture. Being a combination of both, shots of the dema actors of the Marind-anim became his best known photographs. (IN SEARCH OF “MEN OF NATURE”: PAUL WIRZ’S PHOTOGRAPHY IN NEW GUINEA, 1916–1955 Andrea E. Schmidt, Pacific Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4—December 1997)
1Born in Budapest, the capital of Hungary, which at that time was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, on January 29, 1901, to a Jewish family. Her father, Maurice Anhalzer was a native of Slovakia, a businessman dealing in glass, ceramics and fine porcelain, so they were well-off. She was the oldest of four children, the others were all boys. Ever since she was a little girl, she had artistic inclinations and had a strong personality: at four years of age she categorically stated that she wanted to be a painter. In 1906 the family moved to the industrial town of Gyor. Olga had a governess who taught her German. Later, she attended elementary school and started to collect handicrafts, after finding a piece of folk art in the form of a shell with a rose. She showed it to her parents and told them that she liked this shell very much. This was the first contact she had with folk art and thereafter she made up her mind that she would seek and collect all things that seemed odd. She soon had a vast amount stored in the display cabinet in her room. At 16 years of age she was accepted as a private student at the Benedictine Gymnasium [High school], where all the students were novices of that Catholic order, including the person who supervised her studies. At the end of the year she successfully took and passed the Latin, Mathematics and Geometry exams. In 1919, after World War I, she worked with Professor Vally Wieseltier in Vienna, as designer in ceramics of the Wiener Werkstatte factory, and at the same time she was doing illustrations for the social-democratic newspaper “Nepszava” in Budapest, as well as for the German translations of some of the works of Emile Zola. In 1920 she was an artist for the “Arbeiter Zeitung” [Workers’ Newspaper] in Vienna and met Kunfi Zsigmondy, an important personality in Hungarian history. That was the year her father died, and with part of the inheritance she had received she moved to Dusseldorf in the old Weimar Republic, studying painting at the Kunstakademie [ Academy of Art] where she met and married Jupp Rubsam, a sculptor. She then started a new stage in her life, painting and drawing intensively. She also accompanied her husband to all his projects, especially the design and building of a monumental piece of work eulogizing the war, which, when it was inaugurated in 1927 was harshly criticized by General Ludendorff, the right-hand man of Chancellor Hindenburg, because it glorified peace. Around 1930 she separated and divorced her husband, but they continued to be friends. In 1932 she married her second husband, Bela Fisch, an overseas sales organizer for an Italian-Yugoslavian cement factory. From 1933 to 1934 they lived in Morocco and for some time she was able to travel to the interior of that exotic country, where she started her first collection of folk art and handicrafts. In 1934 they returned to Germany, but found that it had changed due to the Nazi terror and domination. On the streets, in hotels and restaurants there were signs that read: “Dogs and Jews: do not enter”. [note that the Fisch's were Jews] So, they traveled to Gyor, where her husband was able to secure a job in Brazil. In 1935 Olga traveled on the Graf Zeppelin dirigible to Pernambuco and Rio de Janeiro, where she met up with her husband. She painted folkloric figures, just like she had done in Morocco, and bought handicrafts. In 1937 they returned to Gyor, where only her three brothers were still living, because both her mother and grandmother had died. After that they went to Italy and in Palermo they boarded a ship to Eritrea, where they lived for a year. Bela Fisch was working and Olga was painting. “I always liked primitive, simple, and what they call underdeveloped people”. And when their contract expired in 1938 they decided to travel to Paris and from there to New York... (www.olgafisch.org, 2013-05-30)
1Cecil Godfrey Rawling, CMG, CIE, DSO, FRGS (16 February 1870 - 28 October 1917) was a British soldier, explorer and author whose expeditions to Tibet and Dutch New Guinea brought acclaim from the Royal Geographic Society and awards from the Dutch and Indian governments. He published two books detailing his experiences and served in the British Army on the North-West Frontier of India and in France during the First World War. It was during this latter service that he was killed in action aged 47 during the Battle of Passchendaele. Brigadier-General Cecil Godfrey Rawling, CMG, CIE, DSO, FRGS (16 February 1870 - 28 October 1917) was a British soldier, explorer and author whose expeditions to Tibet and Dutch New Guinea brought acclaim from the Royal Geographic Society and awards from the Dutch and Indian governments. He published two books detailing his experiences and served in the British Army on the North-West Frontier of India and in France during the First World War. It was during this latter service that he was killed in action aged 47 during the Battle of Passchendaele. A man of adventure in the Victorian mould, he was said to possess 'true courage, modesty and kindness of heart'[1] whether in the snows of Tibet, the jungles of New Guinea or the muddy trenches of Flanders. His death was widely lamented in the scientific and geographic fields and was covered in The Times, where a friend described 'his patient courage, his resourcefulness and constant cheerfulness' and described how he possessed the 'eternal boyishness of the Elizabethans' in his exploration A man of adventure in the Victorian mould, he was said to possess 'true courage, modesty and kindness of heart'[1] whether in the snows of Tibet, the jungles of New Guinea or the muddy trenches of Flanders. His death was widely lamented in the scientific and geographic fields and was covered in The Times, where a friend described 'his patient courage, his resourcefulness and constant cheerfulness' and described how he possessed the 'eternal boyishness of the Elizabethans' in his exploration. (wikipedia 2013-06-05)
1Charles C. Pierce migrated to Southern California in 1886 and began his photographic career in Los Angeles. In addition to establishing a studio and selling photographic supplies, Pierce also amassed a vast picture library over the course of three decades. Pierce acquired the negatives and prints of other regional photographers, eradicated their signatures from the prints, stamped his name on the verso of the image, and organized the lot into subject files. Some of the photographers from whom he acquired images include Emil Ellis, Parker & Knight, Ramsey, Herve Friend, L.M. Clendenon, George P. Thresher, George Wharton James, and F.M. Huddleston. He advertised the collection as the "C.C. Pierce Collection of Rare, Historical and Curious Photographs, Illustrating California, the Pacific Coast and the Southwest."
1Chi wara, antelope figure on a fibre headdress. The headdress is decorated with cowrie shells, an often used fertility symbol. The Antelope is the emblem of the Bambara gruop. There are bird feathers on the top of the horns. This figure depicts a buck. The buck has curved horns, while the hind has straight. The pattern on the figure represents the fur and the perforated pattern symbolizes man. The dancer wears the headdress on the head and a fibre costume covering the whole body. The ceremonial chi wara dance is conveyed at all important occasions, e. g. when asking the gods for rain or fruitful fields, before hunting, at funerals and initiation rites. the dances are performed in pairs, i.e. by a buck and a hind, it is the young men who are dancing. Height: 64 + 90 cm, Width: 24 cm. Origin: Segou (?) Mali, Ethnic group: Bambara (exhibition, Horisonter - röster från ett globalt Afrika)
1Chief Clayton Logan (Seneca), with Hiawatha Belf, on left, center is Chief Sam George (Cayuga), with Canandaigua Treaty belt, and on right, with Two Row Wampum belt, is Chief Stuart Patterson (Tuscarora) who passed away in late August 2013.
1Chief ROBERT HENRY CLARENCE, last Hereditary Chief of the Mosquito Nation 1891/1894 (1908), born about 1872, he succeeded his cousin in 1891, but less than three years later, on 12 February 1894, the Nicaraguans with 300 soldiers forcibly took possession of Bluefields, while the inhabitants of the town were asleep. The soldiers seized the government buildings and the archives of the Mosquito Reservation, and raised the Nicaraguan flag. The Nicaraguan commissioner, General Carlos Lacayo, gave as his excuse for attacking Bluefields that the Mosquito were being misgoverned by Jamaican blacks. Chief Robert Henry Clarence and his government were declared rebels, he was rescued by the British and carried on board a British man-of-war to Puerto Limon, Costa Rica, and then to Jamaica, where he was given asylum by the British and a pension for life. He died in the Public General Hospital of Kingston, following an operation, in January 1908. (http://members.iinet.net.au/~royalty/states/southamerica/mosquito.html, 2014-09-23)
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1Clifford Evans, American archaeologist who, together with his wife Bettey Meggers, pioneered Amazonian archaeology, establishing the main cultural–historical sequence and chronology. Affiliated with the Smithsonian Institution from 1951 onwards, they carried out research in Ecuador, Venezuela, British Guiana, and Brazil. (Darvill 2002, Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology).
1Col. Donald S. Marshall, 85, a 30-year Army veteran who saw action in World War II and Vietnam and an anthropologist who studied the languages and cultures of Polynesia, died of kidney failure Aug. 28 at his home in Alexandria. Col. Marshall was born in Danvers, Mass., and was working on building a photography business in Boston before the outbreak of World War II. He enlisted in the Army in 1942 and was based in Panama, where he developed an interest in the San Blas Cuna Indians and a lifelong passion for anthropology and the study of complex systems. He graduated magna cum laude in anthropology in 1950 and received a doctorate in 1956, both from Harvard University. In 1952, … (Washington post, 2005-09-07)
1Coming upon these guardian figures I felt the presence of the mythic Northwest, with all its woods and mountains and shoreline. Each has a unique personality, yet each seems part of a single whole. I wish I knew more about them, but I also feel like I know their purpose completely just by standing under their gaze. . They guard the Diane Greg Memorial Pavilion on the campus Lewis & Clark University in Portland. (Don McCullough, flickr)
1COMODIFICATION (everything and everybody for sale) Consequences of our movements. Changes. With the arrival of tourism objects change identity. In many places hitherto sacred objects and objects with specific ritual or practical use have been turned into handicraft commodities for sale to tourists. How has this changed the culture that produces them? What happens when your everyday life becomes a sight, a commodity. (synopsis, 2010-02-24)
1Cornelis de Houtman (2 April 1565 – August 1599), brother of Frederick de Houtman, was a Dutch explorer who discovered a new sea route from Europe to Indonesia and managed to begin the Dutch spice trade. At the time, the Portuguese Empire held a monopoly on the spice trade, and the voyage was a symbolic victory for the Dutch, even though the voyage itself was a disaster. (Wikipedia, 2010-06-15).
1Curt Unckel, better known as Curt Nimuendajú (April 18,1883 - 10 December, 1945), was a German-Brazilian ethnologist, anthropologist and writer. His works are fundamental for understanding the religion and cosmology of many native Brazilian Indians, especially the Guaraní people. He earned the surname Nimuendajú from the Apapocuva branch of the latter, who, in a formal adoption ceremony, gave him the name, meaning 'the one who made himself a home, a mere 1 year after his arrival among them. He gave it as part of his official name when taking Brazilian citizenship in 1922. In an obituary, his Brazilian-German colleague, Herbert Baldus called him 'perhaps the greatest Indianista of all time. (Wikipedia, 2010-08-26)
1Dance mask from Colombia.
1Daniel Julie Traditional Gardener People in front of the Glass Building in the Kraton Palace
1Dr Kim Berman lectures at in the Fine Arts department of The University of Johannesburg(UJ) and is the Director of The Artist Proof Studio in Newtown, Johannesburg. Kim Berman received her B.F.A. from the University of the Witwatersrand in 1981 and her M.F.A. in printmaking from the School of the Museum of Fine Arts and Tufts University, Mass, USA, in 1989. In 2009 she recieved her doctorate in Fine Arts from UJ. In 1991,together with Nhlanhla Xaba, she founded the Artist Proof Studio, a community printmaking Centre in Newtown (Johannesburg), which provides training and studio facilities to emerging artists. (http://www.artprintsa.com/kim-berman.html, 2010-04-27)
1Dr. Harvey Bassler, 67, widely known Myerstown geologist, was fatally injured in a collision, involving a station wagon in which he was a passenger and an automobile and oil truck that occurred at 4:15 p. m.; Tuesday, on the Lincoln Highway, three miles east of Downingtown. He died at 10 p. m. in the Chester County Hospital, West Chester. Deputy Coroner Cooper T. Bishop, Jr., of Phoenixville, who is investigating, ordered an autopsy to be performed today in the Chester County Hospital to determine the cause of death. Richard Hommel, 65, of Richlandtown, Bucks County, driver of the station wagon, was critically injured in the same crash. He is suffering from internal injuries and a possible fractured skull and is a patient in the Chester County Hospital. According to Patrolman Lewis Kishbaugh, of the Coatesville State Police, the station wagon in which Bassler and Hommel were riding was completely demolished when struck by a truck after hitting a parked auto along the side of the road. State Police said the fatal crash occurred after the station wagon struck the open door of a 1949 sedan owned by Joseph J. Skelly, 44, 8 East Franklin Street, Media, a construction contractor. Skelly, police said, had just parked his car on the north side of the road and was opening the door when it was struck by the station wagon which then careened across the road and into a truck operated by Barney E. Forrester, 23, 224 East King Street, Malvern. The impact demolished the station wagon, Kishbaugh reported, after which the truck struck a power driven cement breaker being operated along the highway by George Thomas and Theodore Green, both employees of the Skelly Construction Company. Aside from Bassler and Hommel, all others involved in the crackup escaped injury, police said. Dr. Bassler received his early education in Myerstown, graduating from the public school there in 1899. He received his BA degree at Myerstown Albright College in 1903 and a BM degree with a major in mining engineering at Lehigh University in 1908. He received a PhD. degree in geology from John Hopkins University in 1913. He was also the recipient of two honorary degrees, receiving an honorary degree, as a Doctor of Science from Lehigh in 1945 and also an honorary degree from Albright in 1946. He was also an associate in research for the American Museum of Natural History, New York City. Dr. Bassler, who was presently engaged in doing research work for Franklin and Marshall College, spent many years in South America as a geologist, and was widely known. He was unmarried and resided on the old Mosser homestead at the end of North Locust Street, just outside the west end of the Borough of Myerstown. He spent many years in the employ of the Standard Oil Company in South America and in connection with his work as a geologist, penetrated the wilds of the jungles and at times lived among wild tribes in the course of his field work. He reputedly is among the first white men to ever penetrate to the mouth of the Amazon River. Following his work with Standard Oil, he spent 14 more years in Peru as a geologist for the Federal Government and after returning to the United States joined the staff of Franklin and Marshall College where he has been engaged in research for several years. Dr. Bassler was engaged in research work for the Federal Government in both World Wars. He brought back to this country an extensive selection of souvenirs from the jungles of South America, and also compiled an extensive collection of Pennsylvania German books, manuscripts, and paintings over a period of many years, spending much time and effort in acquiring the collection. In 1948, he presented the entire, highly valued collection to the Pennsylvania German Society during an annual meeting held at Franklin and Marshall College.
1Dyott was born in New York to a British father and American mother.He test piloted planes not long after the Wright brothers, and was one of the first pilots ever to fly at night. He was awarded his Royal Aero Club pilot's Certificate (Number 114) on the 17th August 1911. Though less well known now, Dyott gained his licence soon after many of the most famous names of early aviation. Moore-Brabazon was the first to gain the newly devised certificate, on 8 March 1910 and Rolls, Grahame-White, Cody, Roe, Sopwith followed in that year, but de Havilland and Blackburn won theirs in 1911, only a few months before Dyott. In the autumn of 1911 Dyott and Capt. Patrick Hamilton travelled to New York with two Deperdussin monoplanes, a two-seater and a single seater. They made an exhibition tour, stopping for a while in Nassau and in Mexico. A highlight, literally, of the Nassau exhibition was a night flight in the two seater, with Hamilton as passenger, carrying a searchlight powered from the ground via cables. In Mexico the two seater carried many passengers, including the Mexican Republic's President Madero. He later reported on the different flying conditions in hot climates, particularly the effects of thermals, rotating winds and the excitement of flying over forest fires. After returning to the UK, he decided to design his own aircraft. This was known as the Dyott monoplane; after receiving and testing it, Dyott took it to the US in April 1913. He made a sixth month demonstration tour, flying for more than 2,000 miles at venues between New York and California. When he returned to the UK he flew it in the London-Brighton handicap of November 1913, but had to make an unscheduled landing. After serving as a Royal Naval Air Service squadron commander during the First World War, he become an explorer and joined the Royal Geographical Society. In 1927, he was the second person to transverse the Amazonian "River of Doubt", in the footsteps of the 1913–14 Roosevelt-Rondon Scientific Expedition. Dyott wanted to verify Roosevelt's claim of discovering the river, for which there had been some doubt. In 1928 he mounted an expedition to search for the missing British explorer Percy Fawcett in the Amazon. Dyott found evidence he believed confirmed Fawcett had been killed by the Aloique Indians, but the strength of his evidence soon collapsed on closer scrutiny and the mystery of Fawcett's disappearance remained unresolved. Related to the Fawcett expedition, during which Doyott was held captive by Indians and barely escaped with his life, Dyott published a book about his adventures called Manhunting in the Jungle (1930), and also co-wrote and starred in a 1933 Hollywood action film called Savage Gold. The book was later adapted to film as Manhunt in the Jungle (1958). In 1929 Dyott played himself in a documentary called Hunting Tigers in India, filmed in India on the A. S. Vernay expedition under the auspices of the American Museum of Natural History. It was billed as "the first all-talking nature picture" and was supposedly shown to First Lady Mrs. Hoover in the White House theater. Dyott was active in the early years of aviation in South America too. He set-up a company which took and sold aerial-photographs as post-cards. Dyott spent most of his life in South America, but died in the City of his birth, New York, in 1972. (wikipedia, 2010-09-03)
1Eduard Georg Seler (December 5, 1849 – November 23, 1922) was a prominent german anthropologist, ethnohistorian, linguist, epigrapher, academic and Americanist scholar, who made extensive contributions in these fields towards the study of pre-Columbian era cultures in the Americas. He is most renowned for his foundational studies concerning the ethnography, documents and history of Mesoamerican cultures, for which he has been regarded as one of the most influential Mesoamericanist scholars active around the turn of the 20th century. Being poor and of ailing health, he has been helped and supported along the years by his wife Cäcilie (Cecilia) Seler-Sachs (1855–1935), at the same time monetarily (she was the daughter of Dr Sachs, a wealthy MD), physically (during their long, hard, and insecure travels), and intellectually. Her photos of Aztec temples and pyramids are even nowadays useful to scientists, and after her husband's death she went on verifying his works, and publishing them. On the spot, the Selers were helped by Mexican scholar and historian Antonio Penafiel. (wikipedia, 2010-09-28)
1Eduardo Ferreyros Kuppers has been the Peruvian Minister of Foreign Commerce and Tourism under President Alan García since September 2010. (wikipedia, 2013-12-10)
1Ellen Sandor is an internationally recognized multimedia artist and pioneer in digital media. In 1981, she created a unique large-scale three-dimensional photographic mural commissioned by a private collector. This immersive installation combined photography and sculpture with the visual illusion of holography and other Op-Art forms. From the success of this project, Sandor formed a collaborative group of artists in 1983 with her peers from The School of the Art Institute called (art)n. The first project they produced, called PHSCologram ‘83, is an early example of a virtual reality environment in an artistic context, and opened a dialogue with other artists working in digital media. Since the early 1980s, a large body of work has been produced under Sandor’s direction by the (art)n collective and numerous collaborators. From early tributes to artists to virtual portraits, science as art, visual history, architecture and recent works with Chicago Imagists, these large ensemble projects have been shown worldwide in galleries, museums, symposia and in the media, and have been collected by private individuals as well as distinguished institutions. Sandor and (art)n's works are in the permanent collection of the Santa Barbara Museum of Art, International Center of Photography in New York, Fred Jones Jr. Museum at the University of Oklahoma, and others. Commissioned projects include the Battle of Midway Memorial at Chicago’s Midway Airport and unique installations for the Museum of Contemporary Art, The Smithsonian Institution, Cranbrook Institute of Science, and Museum of Jewish Heritage. (http://www.linkedin.com/pub/ellen-sandor/4/661/501, 2010-04-27)
1Emil Bräutigam, born in Germany. He was married to a woman from Morlanda (north of Gothenburg), Johanna Beata Petersdotter. They belonged to the working class; they met in Copenhagen, married and moved to Gothenburg. Emil worked hard and opened a bakery in 1870 in a basement at Skolgatan 18 in Gothenburg that over the years became one of the most classical bakeries and cafés in the city. They had 9 children, 7 boys and two girls. Beata had a brother working in Nicaragua. Seven of their children (six boys and one girl) went to Nicaragua and two of them became Nicaraguans. The first son to go to Nicaragua was the eldest, August. He went there when he was 12 years old. He lived there with his mother’s brother, and together they moved their business to the Bluefields area in 1883. Among other business they worked or dealt with the United Fruit Company (Bucheli 2004). There they came in contact with the Miskitu people. The contacts were kept between the two countries during many decades. According to August Bräutigam’s memoirs they (he and his uncle) had contacts with the Miskitu king in the area, and they helped in the construction of his house. It seems that in the 1960s the family had contact with Robert Clarence’s daughter, Mary Clarence (Bräutigam 1961–1965).
1Enid Schildkrout, born 1941, New Africa Center. Dr. Schildkrout's research focuses on the changing cultures of West Africa, in particular Ghana and Nigeria. She also studies certain issues more widely in Africa-ethnicity, interpretation of material culture and African art, ecotourism and its influence on African societies-drawing heavily on museum collections and fieldwork throughout the African continent. Dr. Schildkrout is currently conducting research among Ghanaians living in New York City, studying how new African ethnicities are created and transformed in the United States. She has worked with a group of children in New York to see how they learn to understand issues of self-identity and community. Dr. Schildkrout is focusing on the Ghanaians in New York City who come from the city of Kumasi, where she did fieldwork in the 1960s. These immigrants-Muslims from many ethnic groups-coalesce into a community in New York, which defines its ethnicity based on the members' common adherence to Islam and, distinctively, their origin from a particular community within a particular town in Ghana. Dr. Schildkrout is interested in how ethnicities are redefined and constructed in new contexts and how these identities assist people in creating opportunities along a chain of transnational migration. Dr. Schildkrout also has an ongoing project with Research Associate Dr. Dale Rosengarten on the historical linkages and cultural congruities of African and African American basket making traditions. She has traveled to Senegal several times to conduct fieldwork for this project. (http://www.amnh.org/science/divisions/anthro/bio.php?scientist=schildkrout, 2014-05-12)
1Ernst von Hesse-Wartegg (1854-1918) was perhaps the 19th century's foremost traveler and greatest travel writer. His career as a diplomat and his marriage to Minnie Hauck (1852-1912), who performed in opera around the globe, seems to have been secondary to his travels. He was the first German in Korea, was largely responsible for the maritime practice of signaling positions of icebergs and wrecks and for universal and standard time zones. He was a "writing machine": 40 plus books, including eight American titles. (Frederic Trautmann, "Across Nebraska by Train in 1877: The Travels of Ernst von Hesse-Wartegg," Nebraska History 65 (1984): 411-422).
1Etiyé Dimma Poulsen (born 1968) is an Ethiopian-born sculptor known for her work in ceramics. Until she was six, Poulsen lived in Ethiopia, moving to Tanzania and then Kenya with her adoptive parents. They were Danes, and moved the family to Denmark when she was fourteen. There she studied art history in college and taught art in various youth programs. At 23 she moved to France and began working with clay; currently, she lives and works at a studio outside of Paris. Poulsen's work is in the collection of the National Museum of African Art in Washington, DC. (wikipedia, 2010-04-27)
1Eva Myrdal, ledare kunskapsuppbyggnad, Östasiatiska museet, SMVK.
1Expressions of Humankind foundation is a Swedish non-profit foundation. The foundation supports scientific research and education centered around the photographic image and the written word. Our aim is to inspire creative reflections on humanity, by experiencing global perspectives.
1Eye moments. The photo archives of the National Museums of World Culture holds around one million photographs, collected over more than a century. Many are portraits of people unknown to us. Sometimes there is a name, but more often there is information only about location, year and photographer. Photographs have been used by the museum to document and explain the world. Still, the photographs primarily reflects the photographers way of thinking; many of the images in the exhibition might be arranged, and therefore show inequalities between the photographer and the ones depicted. Photographs are unique historical documents preserving gazes and events from a specific time and place. They tell different stories and show how we have perceived the mundane, different, beautiful or uncomfortable. They can help us remember persons and events that have disappeared, been repressed or banned. The camera lens freezes the moment when the present and the past meet.
1Felix Speiser, Professor of Ethnology in the University, and Director of the Ethnographical Museum of Basle, Switzerland.
1Firdaus Kharas is a Canadian director and producer of animation, film and television media. His current work focuses on creating various types of media to educate, entertain, and effect societal and individual behavioural change through mass communications spanning across many cultures and countries to better the human condition. (wikipedia, 2010-04-27)
1Frank DeRose, executive director of the Condom Project, an educational group that promotes condom use for HIV prevention.
1Frederick Starr (September 2, 1858 – August 14, 1933), aka Ofuda Hakushi in Japan, was an American academic, anthropologist, and "populist educator" born at Auburn, New York. Biography Starr earned an undergraduate degree at the University of Rochester (1882) and a doctorate in geology at Lafayette (1885). While working as a curator of geology at the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), he became interested in anthropology and ethnology; and Frederic Ward Putnam helped him become appointed as curator of AMNH's ethological collection. In this period, he became active in the Chautauqua circuit as a popular professor and, in 1888-89, as registrar. When William Rainey Harper, president of the Chautauqua Institution was named President of the University of Chicago, he appointed Starr as an assistant professor of anthropology. Starr was the curator in charge of ethnological subjects at the American Museum of Natural History in New York (1889–91), until he accepted a faculty position at the University of Chicago where he remained for the next 31 years. He was an Assistant professor (1892–95), and he gained tenure the next year. In 1905-06 he made a careful study of the pygmy races of Central Africa, and made investigations in the Philippine Islands in 1908, in Japan in 1909-10, and in Korea in 1911. Starr happened to be in Japan when the Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923 struck the main island of Honshū. In the absence of news from the devastated area, speculation about his safety was published in the New York Times. His plans to spend several months researching the vicinity of Mt. Fuji were not specific, nor was the extent of the quake area known. Reports that the area near Mt. Fuji were hard hit led to increased concerns. Worries were allayed when Dr. Starr's name was published amongst the list of survivors which was prepared by the U.S. Embassy in Tokyo. As chance would have it, Dr. Starr happened to be in Tokyo on September 1, 1923, when the earthquake struck; and he escaped to the relative safety of Zojo-ji, a famous Buddhist Temple in Tokyo's Shiba district in what is today Minato ward. A brief description from a letter to friends in Auburn, New York, was printed in the Times: "We went to the temple grounds, but at midnight, the priests took us up higher and higher to the innermost temple. Here on the topmost step, I sat till morning, watching the brazen sky beyond the slope meaning ruin to millions." Dr. Starr died of bronchial pneumonia at age 74 in Tokyo, August 14, 1933. Services were held at Trinity Cathedral in Tokyo. Amongst those attending was Japanese Premier Makoto Saito. (wikipedia, 2011-06-30)
1French botanist and explorer from Compiègne, Oise, the son of a pharmacist. He initially trained in medicine but later switched to botany, a student of R.L. Desfontaines and A.H.L. de Jussieu. Boivin joined the Oise Expedition (1846-1852) to the islands of the Indian Ocean as the official botanist. He collected both plants and animals but contracted malaria and, suffering from exhaustion, died the day after his return to France. Plant names which commemorate Boivin include a great many species and the genera Boivinella A. Camus in the Poaceae, Neoboivinella Aubrév. & Pellegr. in the Sapotaceae and Bivinia Jaub. ex Tul. in the Flacourtiaceae. (http://plants.jstor.org/person/bm000000840)
1Fritz Johansen served as a zoologist on the 1906-1908 Danish Expedition to Greenland led by L. Mylius. In 1913 he joined the Canadian Department of Naval Services’ Canadian Arctic Expedition, then in the 1920’s he performed marine surveys of Labrador and Hudson Bay for the Canadian Department of Marine and Fisheries. He died in Denmark in 1957. According to the Canadian Museum of Civilization, “A large bay near the Richardson Islands, on the south coast of Victoria Island, carries Johansen’s name to honor his Canadian Arctic Expedition work as a biologist... His published Canadian Arctic Expedition reports are on insect life in the western Arctic, Arctic vegetation and crustaceans. His manuscript on Arctic fishes was never published, but has been of great value in the production of a new work on the fishes of Arctic Canada by the Canadian Museum of Nature.” (www.herbarium.unc.edu, 2013-11-06) The picture shows Fritz Johansen in front of CAE house, Bernard Harbour, Nunavut. July 11, 1916. GHW 51240. Source: Canadian Museum of Civilization
1Fritz Sarasin, full name Karl Friedrich Sarasin (1859–1942) was a Swiss naturalist. He was a second cousin of Paul Sarasin. They made a scientific expedition to Celebes (now Sulawesi). (wikipedia, 2012-05-08)
1Function: water dipper Acquisition: Collected in Tegal, in the north coast of Java, Indonesia before 1918 by the Danish anthropologist, Kaj Birket-Smith. Why this is a masterpiece The words/name gayung batok kelapa or siwur in Javanese, (water dipper) reminds me of a tool that Javanese people use for Upacara Siraman (blessing ceremony). Upacara Siraman is a shower–blessing for the bride before the wedding day with water from seven different places mixed with seven different types of flowers. The siwur is a tool (water dipper) used to take the water from the gentong, a large earthenware bowl for water, which is made from a coconut shell that has a bamboo shaft for a handle. Until now, the siwur was made mostly in Java, since other provinces have different cultures and traditions and didn’t use siwur as Javanese people did. One place that still produces siwur in a traditional fashion is the Baduy village, West Java. Baduy people often use bamboo as the material because it’s easy to obtain in their area. The most special thing about siwur or other handicrafts made by Baduy people is that they have to make it by hand (handmade) using only simple tools and materials. Using simple tools and materials from their surroundings is a must because one of Baduy people’s rules is to protect their traditions from modernization. History of the Object One of the museum’s mission statements is to be receptive to and to collaborate with groups that represent objects in the collections. This applies to the interpretations and availability of the existing objects and in the collecting of new objects that highlight contemporary cultural meetings, conflicts and influences. In keeping with this, members of the local Indonesian community in Göteborg were asked to choose objects that they felt they could relate to and that carried a special personal inherent relevance to them. (Virtual Collection of Masterpieces, http://masterpieces.asemus.museum/Default.aspx)
1George Gustav Heye (1874 – January 20, 1957) was a collector of Native American artifacts. His collection became the core of the National Museum of the American Indian. Life and career Heye was the son of Carl Friederich Gustav Heye; and Marie Antoinette Lawrence of Hudson, New York. Carl was a German immigrant who earned his wealth in the petroleum industry. George graduated from Columbia College (now Columbia University) in 1896 with a degree in electrical engineering. While superintending railroad construction in Kingman, Arizona in 1897, he acquired a Navajo deerskin shirt, as his first artifact. He acquired individual items until 1903, then he began collecting material in larger numbers. In 1901, he started a career in investment banking that lasted until 1909. In 1915 Heye worked with Frederick W. Hodge and George H. Pepper on the Nacoochee Mound in White County Georgia. The work was done through the Heye Foundation, the Museum of the American Indian, and the Bureau of American Ethnology, and was some of the most complete work of the time including numerous photographs. In 1918 Heye and his colleagues publish a report entitled The Nacoochee Mound In Georgia. He accumulated the largest private collection of Native American objects in the world. The collection was initially stored in Heye’s Madison Avenue apartment in New York City, and later, in a rented room. By 1908, he was referring to the collection as "The Heye Museum", and he was soon lending materials for exhibit at what later became the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology in Philadelphia. In 1916, he purchased from J. E. Standley of Ye Olde Curiosity Shop the collection of Alaskan Native artifacts that had won the gold medal for ethnological collections at the 1909 Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition. Eventually, the Heye collection was moved to the Heye Foundation’s Museum of the American Indian at 155th Street and Broadway, which broke ground in May 1916. In 1919, he established the journal Indian Notes and Monographs. The museum opened to the public in 1922, and closed in 1994, when the Smithsonian Institution opened the Heye Center of the National Museum of the American Indian in the former Custom House in lower Manhattan. Heye died on January 20, 1957. Museum of the American Indian Heye created the Museum of the American Indian in 1916 in New York City and was its director until 1956. His collection of Native American materials was gathered over a period of 45 years. This collection became the basis of the National Museum of the American Indian. The largest in the world, it contains over one million objects from Native Americans. It was transferred to the Smithsonian in 1989, and about a third of the original collection has been repatriated. Artifacts were once stored in the Bronx along the I-95 Expressway corridor, until the land and building was sold, then cleared to make way for private housing.
1Gerardo Reichel-Dolmatoff (March 6, 1912 – May 16, 1994) was an anthropologist, known for his holistic approach and his in-depth fieldworks among tropical rainforest cultures (e.g. Tucano).
1Gideon Mendel was born in 1959 in South Africa. After studying Psychology and African Economic History, he became a freelance news photographer in 1983. He moved to London in 1990 and has since been published in most of the leading international magazines. He has won several World Press Photo awards and in 1996 he received the prestigious Eugene Smith Grant in New York for his work on Aids in Africa. He is a member of Network Photographers in London. (http://www.reportage.org/PrintEdition2/Senegal/PagesSenegal/mendel_links.html, 2010-04-27)
1Gilbert Livingston Wilson (1869 – 1930) was an ethnographer and a Presbyterian minister. He and his brother recorded the lives of three Hidatsa family members; Buffalo-Bird-Woman, her brother Henry Wolf Chief, and her son Edward Goodbird. Wlison’s extensive and detailed writings remain an important source of information for historians, anthropologists, as well as the Hidatsa people. (wikipedia 2013-03-26)
1GLOBAL NOMADS Ex. Roma, tuareg - different ways of being nomad The exotic image of the blue people, finding a space in the global world as a nomad, fighting for the right to move in a wide land. And roma culture and the provocative case of a people without a native land. Why has that been such a threat? Paradox: Movement is valued; being a traveller is a status identity. But if you are too mobile and without a recognizable home you become a threat. Flexible identites… The identity of the Roma can serve as a model for a modern, European transnational identity that is capable of cultural fusion and adaptation to changing circumstances. The Roma community knows no territorial boundaries, uniting people of different tongues and religions. Understood this way, Roma identity coincides with Stuart Hall’s cultural identity, which is a “matter of becoming,” or with Homi Bhabha’s description: “restless, uneasy, interstitial hybridity: a radical heterogeneity, discontinuity, the permanent revolution of forms.” (synopsis, 2010-02-24)
1Gottfried Lindauer, also known as Gottfried or Bohumir Lindaur (5 January 1839 – 13 June 1926) was a New Zealand artist of Czech descent famous for his portraits. Many prominent Māori chiefs commissioned his work, which accurately records their facial tattoos, clothing, ornaments and weapons. The other artist known for these portraits was C. F. Goldie. Lindauer is buried in the Old Gorge cemetery in Woodville. Lindauer, the #1 New Zealand sparkling wine brand, is named after the artist. (wikipedia, 2012-01-13)
1Guido Boggiani (1861–1902) was an Italian painter, picture drawer, photographer, and ethnologist who in 1887 traveled through the interior of Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay to document the lives of Indians in the region. Now hailed as a "pioneer of fieldwork" in Italian ethnology, he was ritually killed by natives in 1902. (wikipedia, 2011-02-17)
1Harold C. Conklin (born 1926), professor emeritus, is an anthropologist who has conducted extensive ethnoecological and linguistic field research in Southeast Asia (particularly the Philippines) and is a pioneer of ethnoscience, documenting indigenous ways of understanding and knowing the world. Minnesota State University's E-Museum describes his anthropological contribution as follows: "Conklin was one of the world's leading authorities in the field of ethnoscience .. He was a pioneer in doing research on the indigenous systems of tropical forests and terraced agriculture... Mindoro (the Hanunoo) and Luzon (the Ifugao) in the Philippines were his main field sites Through his research in the Philippines, Conklin is responsible for amassing one of the largest ethnographic collections from that area. His collection is at Yale, where he was curator from 1974 until 1996, when he retired." (wikipedia, 2010-09-27)
1He is an old man that is always playing his flute and his guitar all over the Mexico City Downtown streets. (Mandujano, Enrique, flickr)
1Herbert Baldus was born in Wiesbaden in 1899. There he attended school. At the age of eleven, Baldus was admitted to the Prussian corps of cadets and participated in Word War I. He later tried to handle his war experiences through his literary work. In 1920 Baldus came to South America. After briefly living in Argentina, he moved to Sao Paolo and worked as a language teacher. In 1923 Baldus did his first expedition, a cinematographic excursion to the Chaco region where he had his first contact with indigenous people. Through this experience Baldus not only developed a growing interest in anthropology but did further research trips throughout the following years. In 1928 Baldus returned to Germany and took up his studies of Anthropology and Ancient American Studies in Berlin. Richard Thurnwald, Konrad Theodor Preuss and Walter Lehmann were among his teachers. Moreover, Baldus was interested in Philosophy and Spanish literature. He received his Ph D in 1932 when completing a dissertation on the Samuko language. After the political takeover by the Nazi regime in 1933, Baldus returned to South America, where he did fieldwork on several groups both in Southern and Central Brazil (e.g., on the Kaingang, Guayaki, Terena). In 1939 he was appointed Professor of Brazilian Ethnology at the Escola de Sociologia e Politica (School of Sociology and Politics) in Sao Paulo. Besides lecturing he kept doing research trips throughout the following years, including regions of Brazil as well as Central- American countries. Baldus became a citizen of Brazil in 1941. Five years later he also took up a position at the Museu Paulista in Sao Paolo, which he chaired from 1953 until 1960. There he established a new publication series. Baldus not only co-edited the journals »Sociologa« and »Sociologus«, but also did major contributions to the »Bibliograjia critica da etnologia Brasileira«. Herbert Baldus died in Sao Paolo in 1970 (Text written by Vincenz Kokot in February 2012, based on Becher, Hans, 1970, ZfE, ed. 95, pp. 157 - 163; photo source: http://www.fespsp.org.br/75anos/imgs/personalidades/04-HerbertBaldus.jpg)
1Hermann Strebel (1834–1914) was a malacologist from Germany and Mexico.
1Hermann von Rosenberg (April 7, 1817 - November 15, 1888) was a German naturalist who was born in Darmstadt. In late 1839 he enlisted in the Dutch Harderwijk, and soon afterwards was stationed in the Netherlands East Indies as a military cartographer tasked with making topographical surveys. He spent 30 years of his life working in the East Indies. He returned to Europe in 1871, and died in the Hague, Netherlands in 1888. From 1840 until 1856 Rosenberg was a topographical draughtsman on Sumatra and its neighboring islands. Afterwards he was a civil servant, working as a cartographer and surveyor in the Moluccas and western New Guinea. Rosenberg also had a keen interest in ornithology, and beginning in the 1860s collected specimens in the Indies for study and classification by Hermann Schlegel at the natural history museum of Leiden. Rosenberg published a few books and several articles concerning his work in the East Indies. In these he describes the geography, zoology, linguistics and ethnography of the islands. His best known work is the Der Malayische Archipel. Land und Leute in Schilderungen, gesammelt während eines dreissigjährigen Aufenthaltes in den Kolonien. Here he writes about the famous Javanese garden at Buitenzorg, and describes the artifacts and customs of the people of Sumatra, Celebes, New Guinea and the Moluccas. The illustrations in the book were mostly made from wood-engravings, based on Rosenberg's illustrations made on site. (Wikipedia, 2010-06-15)
1Horn, made of a shell.
1Howard Grossman, MD, is a specialist in HIV medicine. He runs Polari Medical Group, a private medical practice in Manhattan.
1Indian spear-thrower. Lake Patzcuaro.
1Instituto Lingüístico de Verano, abbreviated ILV and the Spanish equivalent of Summer Institute of Linguistics, is the name of several non-profit organisations incorporated in Latin American countries, affiliated with the overarching parent organisation SIL International. As such, it may refer to: - Instituto Lingüístico de Verano (Mexico), founded in Mexico in 1948 with the legal status of an Asociación Civil (civil association) - Instituto Lingüístico de Verano (Peru), founded in Peru in 1946 as an asociación de voluntarios (voluntary association) - SIL International, the parent organisation, based in the US and formerly known as the Summer Linguistics Institute, may by itself be referred to as the Instituto Lingüístico de Verano in general Spanish. SIL International is a sister organization of Wycliffe Bible Translators, which is a Christian organization, associated with the Protestant section of Christianity, dedicated to translating the Bible into minority languages. The two organizations share common roots with their foundings. (wikipedia, 2010-09-24)
1Introduction Globalization seen as the widening, deepening and speeding up of worldwide interconnectedness have also brought about an enormous increase in the movements of people. Over 200 million migrants from different countries are scattered across the globe. People travelling for leisure and pleasure are one of the largest industries in the world. Tourist organizations predict that by the year 2020, 1, 6 billion people will make a trip abroad. in Transit (working title) is an exhibition on human movements, voyages, migrations and travels. It is an exhibition about people on the move, wandering, touring, sight seeing or seeking refugee and labour. The exhibition attempts to visualise the similarities, differences and paradoxes among people travelling the earth for a wide range of reasons. The UN declaration of Human Rights on the right to movements will set our direction for journeying through the exhibition. Human movement is a human right according to UN declaration nr.13 and 14. Everyone has the right to freedom of movement. However, the conditions of human mobility differ considerably; it is a matter of choice for some, an imperative for others. The urge to be mobile and to travel is often associated with the desire for openness and freedom, and mobility is often portrayed as an indispensable part of a cosmopolitan cultural capital. Other forms of mobility are on the contrary seen as a security problem, as something in need of restriction and control, and often forbidden and hindered. (synopsis 2010-02-24)
1Isaiah Bowman, AB, Ph. D. (26 December 1878, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada – 6 January 1950, Baltimore, United States) was an American geographer. He was educated at Harvard and Yale where he taught from 1905 to 1915, after which time he became the director of the American Geographical Society, a position he held for 20 years from 1915 to 1935. He was chief territorial adviser to President Woodrow Wilson at the Versailles conference and served the Department of State as territorial adviser during World War II. Some of his more notable works include: Forest Physiography (1911) Well-Drilling Methods (1911) South America (1915) The Andes of Southern Peru (1916) The New World-Problems in Political Geography (1921). In 1916 he became associate editor of the Geographical Review. He was associate editor of the Journal of Geography in 1918-19 and editor in 1919-20. In 1921 he became a director of the newly formed Council of Foreign Relations. Bowman served as President of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland from 1935 to 1948. Before and during World War II he served on the Council of Foreign Relation's War and Peace Studies as chairman of its territorial group. From 1945 to 1949 he was a CFR vice-president. (wikipedia, 2011-06-30)
1Jacob A. Loewen: linguist, anthropologist and missionary; born 1 September 1922 in Romanovka, Orenburg Mennonite settlement, Russia to Jacob and Katherine (Quiring) Isaac. In 1929, the Loewens migrated to Canada. In 1945, Jacob married Anne Enns in Yarrow, British Columbia (BC). They had 3 daughters, Gladys, Doreen Joyce and Sharon, as well as one son, Bill. Jacob died on 27 January 2006 in Abbotsford, BC, Canada. Upon arriving in Canada the Loewens settled first in Kronsgart, Manitoba, where Abraham found employment as a farm laborer. It was in Manitoba that Jacob, at age 10, had a conversion experience. In 1934 the family migrated to Yarrow British Columbia, where Jacob was baptized on 2 July 1939 and joined the Yarrow Mennonite Brethren (MB) Church. 1945 to 1964 Jacob served the MB church, first as missionary in Colombia, (1947-1957 with a 2-year furlough while in graduate studies) and as a professor at Tabor College (1958-1964). While teaching at Tabor, Jacob and Anne Loewen along with David and Dora Wirsche were involved in summer mission and literacy work with a native church in Panama. It was here that the two couples sought to promote the independence and empowerment of the Panama Indian churches, comprised heavily of Indians from the Colombian Chacó, limiting the direct oversight of the Panamanian Indian church, the Iglesia Evangélica Unida, by expatriates and the MB Board of Missions. It was also during his professoriate at Tabor College that Jacob Loewen accepted the invitation of the Mennonite Central Committee (MCC) and the MB Board of Missions to analyze Mennonite resettlement attempts of Indians living near three Mennonite settlements as well as interracial Mennonite-Indian conflicts in the Paraguayan Gran Chaco. From 1964 to 1984 Jacob Loewen served as translation consultant, first in South America with the American Bible Society, (1964-1970), headquartered in New York City and then in central and west Africa with the United Bible Societies (1970-1984), headquartered in London, England. It was especially in Africa that Loewen sought to move the Bible Society’s sanctioned translation process increasingly from the control of the expatriates to that of the local native churches. By 1984, Loewen’s problems with UBS policy as defined by officials in Africa led to Jacob Loewen’s forced retirement. Following his retirement, Jacob Loewen focused on two main goals: interpreting the perspectives of non-Western indigenous cultures to the Euro-North American evangelicals, including Mennonite Brethren congregations – which increasingly led to tensions between Loewen and MB officials in the Fraser Valley - and publishing, all the while concentrating on what natives had taught him. Included here was his retrospective analysis of the Panama experiment. Following a serious stroke on 4 June 1993, Loewen concentrated his energies on preparing three major publications (testimonies to different populations) and organizing the Yarrow Research Committee charged with researching and publishing the story of the Yarrow immigrant community from the late 1920s to 1960. (Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online)
1Jan Pieterszoon Coen (8 January 1587 – 21 September 1629) was an officer of Dutch East India Company (VOC) in the early seventeenth century, holding two terms as its Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. A national hero in the Netherlands, for providing the impulse that set the VOC on the path to dominance in the Dutch East Indies. A quote of his from 1618 is well known, "Despair not, spare your enemies not, for God is with us" ("Dispereert niet, ontziet uw vijanden niet, want God is met ons" in Dutch). Since the latter half 20th century he has been looked at in a more critical light, as some people view his often violent means to have been excessive. Coen was known in his time on account of strict governance and harsh criticism of people who did not share his views, at times directed even at the 17 Lords of the VOC (for which he was reprimanded). His overall policies were however never judged to be unreasonable. Coen was known be strict towards subordinates and merciless to his opponents. His willingness to use violence to obtain his ends was too much for many, even for such a relatively violent period of history. When Saartje Specx, a girl whom he had been entrusted to care for, was found in a garden in the arms of a soldier, Pieter Cortenhoeff, Coen showed little mercy in having her whipped instead of drowned in a barrel as he first intended. Cortenhoeff was beheaded. (Wikipedia, 2010-06-15)
1Jean-Baptiste Du Halde (1674–1743) was a French Jesuit historian specializing in China. Although he had not gone to China, he collected seventeen Jesuit missionaries' reports and provided encyclopedic survey on Chinese history, culture and society. (wikipedia, 2012-03-13)
1Jewish Children with their Teacher in Samarkand. Early color photograph from Russia, created by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii as part of his work to document the Russian Empire from 1909 to 1915.
1John Alden Mason (14 January 1885 – 7 November 1967) was an archaeological anthropologist and linguist. Mason was born in Orland, Indiana, but grew up in Philadelphia's Germantown. He received his undergraduate degree from the University of Pennsylvania in 1907 and a doctorate from the University of California, Berkeley in 1911. His dissertation was an ethnographic study of the Salinan Amerindian ethnic group of California. He also authored a number of linguistic studies, including a study of Piman languages. His later ethnographic works included studies of the Tepehuan. Mason was curator of the University Museum at the University of Pennsylvania from 1926 until his retirement in 1958. His papers are housed at the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia. (wikipedia, 2011-07-01)
1John Butler, captain.
1John Watt Beattie (1859-1930), photographer and antiquarian, was born on 15 August 1859 at Aberdeen, Scotland, son of John Beattie, master house-painter and photographer, and his wife Esther Imlay, née Gillivray. After a grammar-school education he migrated with his parents and brother in 1878, and struggled to clear a farm in the Derwent Valley, Tasmania. He soon turned to his life's work. From 1879 he made many photographic expeditions into the bush, becoming a full-time professional in 1882 in partnership with Anson Bros whom he bought out in 1891. Gifted with both physical zeal and craftsman skills, he probably did more than anyone to shape the accepted visual image of Tasmania. An admirer of William Piguenit, Beattie stressed the same wildly romantic aspects of the island's beauty. His work included framed prints, postcards, lantern-slides and albums, and was the basis for a popular and pleasing set of Tasmanian pictorial stamps (in print 1899-1912). (Australian Dictionary of Biography, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/beattie-john-watt-5171)
1José Miguel Covarrubias Duclaud (22 November 1904 — 4 February 1957) was a Mexican painter and caricaturist, ethnologist and art historian among other interests. In 1924 at the age of 19 he moved to New York City armed with a grant from the Mexican government, tremendous talent, but very little English speaking skill. Luckily, Miguel could draw. In her book, Covarrubias, author Adriana Williams tells how Mexican poet José Juan Tablada and New York Times critic/photographer Carl Van Vechten, introduced him to New York's literary/cultural elite also known as the Smart Set. Soon Miguel was drawing for several top magazines, eventually becoming one of Vanity Fair magazine's premier caricaturists. A man of many talents, he also began to design sets and costumes for the theater including Caroline Dudley Reagon's La Revue Negre starring Josephine Baker in the show that made her a smash in Paris. Other shows included Androcles and the Lion, The Four Over Thebes, and the Garrick Gaities' Rancho Mexicano number for dancer and choreographer Rosa Rolando (or Rolanda; born Rosemonde Cowan, and later to take the name Rosa Covarrubias). The two fell in love and traveled together to Mexico, Europe, Africa and the Caribbean in the mid to late 1920s. During one of their trips to Mexico, Rosa and Miguel traveled with Tina Modotti and Edward Weston, who taught Rosa photography. Rosa was also introduced to Miguel's family and friends including artist Diego Rivera. Rosa would become lifelong friends with Rivera's second wife, the artist Frida Kahlo. (wikipedia, 2011-02-01)
1Julius Popper (December 15, 1857 – June 5, 1893) was an engineer, adventurer and explorer of Romanian Jewish origin. He is responsible for the modern outline of the city of Havana, Cuba. As a "conquistador" of Tierra del Fuego in southern South America he was a controversial but influential figure. (wikipedia, 2007-07-01)
1Kamariera Te Hau Takari Wharepapa was born at Mangākahia. In 1863 he was one of 12 Māori who travelled to England aboard the ship Ida Ziegler under the sponsorship of Wesleyan missionary William Jenkins. While in England he was presented to Queen Victoria and married Elizabeth Reid, an English housemaid. The first of their five daughters was born on the return journey to New Zealand and the family settled in Maungakahia in 1864 where Elizabeth helped her husband lobby for a school, which was eventually built. Wharepapa's marriage to Elizabeth Reid was published in the English Mail with the headline 'Amalgamation of the Races' to make public the idea that when English fathers give consent for their daughters to marry Māori, the races are amalgamated. They were married at the parish church of St Anne, Limehouse. Miss Reid was from the parish of Marylebone and they were married by Rev. E. Day. His marriage to Elizabeth Reid eventually broke down for it is said she tired of life on a Māori kāinga. Their daughter Mary Faith married artist Thomas Ryan on 1 July 1903, at St Mary's Cathedral, Auckland. He was photographed with Charles Goldie. Wharepapa died at Mangakahia in 1920. (http://www.lindaueronline.co.nz/maori-portraits/kamariera-te-hau-takiri-wharepapa)
1Karl Bodmer (6 February 1809 – 30 October 1893) was a Swiss painter of the American West. He accompanied German explorer Maximilian zu Wied-Neuwied from 1832 through 1834 on his Missouri River expedition. He was hired as an artist by Maximilian with the specific intent of traveling through the American West and recording images of the different tribes they saw along the way. A major turning point in Bodmer's life was his being contracted to the Prinz Maximilian zu Wied-Neuwied. Known popularly to naturalists then and even now as Prince Max, this German aristocrat, having successfully led a scientific expedition to Brazil in 1815–1817, decided to embark on another such venture, this time to North America. By 1828, Bodmer had left his native Switzerland for the German city of Koblenz. It was there that he came to Prince Max's attention. After delays, Bodmer, in the company of Prince Max and a huntsman and taxidermist, David Dreidoppel, set out for America on 17 May 1832. In a letter bearing that date, Prince Max wrote to his brother that Bodmer "is a lively, very good man and companion, seems well educated, and is very pleasant and very suitable for me; I am glad I picked him. He makes no demands, and in diligence he is never lacking." Arriving in Boston on 4 July, the three encountered hardships and delays caused largely by a cholera epidemic in the eastern states that swept across the north to Michigan. It was not until 8 October that the three began their journey down the Ohio River from Pittsburgh, arriving in Mt. Vernon, Indiana about midnight on 18 October. The next morning, the party made their way to New Harmony, Indiana. In his famous book chronicling the expedition, Maximilian Prince of Wied's Travels in the Interior of North America, the Prince wrote, "I had been indisposed, as well as my huntsman, since I left Louisville, and was not in a mood properly to appreciate the fine, lofty forests of Indiana, the road through which was very bad and rough." Prince Max had planned to spend only a few days in New Harmony, but his stay "was prolonged by serious indisposition, nearly resembling cholera, to a four months' winter residence." The Prince devotes a whole chapter of his book to New Harmony, its environs, and to the work and personalities of two leading American naturalists who lived there, Thomas Say and Charles-Alexandre Lesueur. Lesueur was also a prolific artist. Unlike the Prince and the huntsman, Bodmer was not ill-disposed. Alone, he left New Harmony at the end of December, and on 3 January 1833 caught a steamboat at Mt. Vernon. He traveled to New Orleans and spent a week with Joseph Barrabino, an Italian-American naturalist and friend of Say and Lesueur. A fine pencil portrait of Barrabino, drawn by Lesueur, is preserved at the New Harmony Workingmen's Institute. Later life When the expedition was complete, he returned to Germany with Prince Maximilian, then traveled to France. In Paris he had many scenes from the expedition (81 in total) reproduced as aquatints. The Prince had these images incorporated into his book, which was published in London in 1839. After returning to Europe, Bodmer lived in Barbizon, France, where he became a French citizen. At that point he changed his name to "Charles Bodmer". Today the majority of his original watercolours are located in three collections in the United States, with the majority of them located at the Joslyn Art Museum in Omaha, Nebraska. They are recognised as among the most painstakingly accurate painted images ever made of Native Americans, their culture and artefacts, and of the scenery of the pristine "Old West". (wikipedia, 2011-07-01)
1Kewene Te Haho, reputed to be nearly 90 at his death, is reported in the West Coast Times as having died in July 1902 at his home at Te Makaka on the shores of Aotea harbour. Makaka was a Wesleyan outpost. A newspaper account estimates Kewene was born around 1813. He fought in the 1830 Taumatawiwi battle between Te Waharoa of Tainui and Ngāti Maru of Hauraki. Between 1835-6 Kewene Te Haho accompanied Te Waharoa on a fighting excursion to Rotorua and Maketu. Kewene Te Haho's son Ratapu Kewene signed the Māori Visitors' Book at the Lindauer Art Gallery on 31 January 1902 and acknowledged his father. (http://www.lindaueronline.co.nz/maori-portraits/kewene-te-haho-)
1Kintpuash (Strikes the water brashly), better known as Captain Jack (circa 1837 - October 3, 1873), was a chief of the Native American Modoc tribe of California and Oregon, and was their leader during the Modoc War. Modoc history In 1864, the Modoc lived with each other in their ancestral home near Tule Lake, on the California-Oregon border. However, due to the desire of white settlers to farm the fertile land, they were moved to the Klamath Reservation in southwestern Oregon, home of their traditional rivals, the Klamath tribe. As the Klamath outnumbered their newcomers, and the reservation was on traditional Klamath land, the Modoc were poorly treated. In 1865, Kintpuash, a Modoc leader better known as Captain Jack, led the Modoc people from the reservation back to their home. In 1869, the Modoc were rounded up by the United States Army and returned to the Klamath Reservation, but conditions had not improved, and Captain Jack led a band of about 180 Modoc to the Tule Lake area in April, 1870. The Modoc War, 1872-73 In 1872 the Army was sent to capture Captain Jack's band and return them to the reservation. On November 29, while negotiating their surrender at the Lost River in Oregon, fighting broke out between a soldier and one of the Modoc warriors. The brief Battle of Lost River ensued, and Jack took the opportunity to lead his band into the wastelands of what is now Lava Beds National Monument. The band settled in a natural fortress, now known as Captain Jack's Stronghold, consisting of many caves and trenches in the lava beds. When they were finally located, the Army quickly launched an attack on January 17, 1873; the Army was left with 35 dead and many wounded, while the Modoc suffered no casualties. Captain Jack's advisers, apparently not attuned to relevant differences between Modoc and Euro-American culture, suggested that the Army would leave in response to killing their leader, General Edward Canby. Jack hoped, to the contrary, for a peaceful solution to the conflict, and entered into negotiations with a Federal peace commission. During the months-long negotiations, the Modoc hawks gained in influence. Jack was shamed, his opponents throwing the hat of a Modoc woman at him to symbolically strip him of his manhood. To bolster his influence, Jack agreed to their plan: he called for a meeting with the commission (of which Canby was by then the chair) with the intention of killing them all. During a conference on April 11, Captain Jack and several other Modocs drew pistols upon a pre-arranged signal, and killed two leading members of the commission; Captain Jack fatally shot Canby and Boston Charley dispatched Californian clergyman Reverend Eleazar Thomas.[1] Canby was the only general killed during the Indian Wars (Custer's permanent rank was lieutenant colonel). The murder had far from the desired effect, and Canby's successor, General Jefferson C. Davis, brought in over 1000 soldiers as reinforcements. On April 14, the Army again attacked the stronghold, this time forcing the Modoc to flee. Jack captured Over the next several months, various groups of Modoc continued to fight the army, while others began to surrender. Captain Jack successfully avoided the Army until a number of Modoc agreed to hunt him down and turn him in; these men included Hooker Jim, Bogus Charley, Shacknasty Jim and Steamboat Frank. On June 1, Captain Jack surrendered, ceremonially laying down his rifle. He was taken to Fort Klamath, and on October 3, 1873 he was hanged for the murder of General Canby and Reverend Thomas. Black Jim, John Schonchin and Boston Charley were hanged with him. After the execution, Captain Jack's body was transported by freight train to Yreka, with reports that the body was embalmed to be used as a carnival attraction in the Eastern states. This was unproven and attributed to the army's attempt at secrecy; in reality all the hanged men's heads were severed from their bodies at Fort Klamath...(wikipedia, 2013)
1Know Yourself How do feelings arise? Where does the self live? Why do we get scared? Know Your Self is a unique journey for the whole family - an exhibition to experience together. Through pulsating rubber walls, drop-shaped water beds, hardwood floors in motion and rotating mirrors, your feelings are explored and your senses challenged. Exhibition opening with artists and music, Saturday, September 17 at 1 pm. Free admission. (www.varldskulturmuseet.se, 2011-09-12)
1Kristian Göransson is Curator at the The Museum of Mediterranean and Near Eastern Antiquities.
1Leather work, renaissance faire
1Leslie Spier (December 13, 1893 – December 3, 1961) was an American anthropologist best known for his ethnographic studies of American Indians. He spent a great deal of his professional life as a teacher; he retired in 1955 and died in 1961. Spier created a path for the study of cultural change, taking the time to conduct in-depth studies of group contact. His studies focused on changes throughout various cultures over time; he saw great importance in empirical research and made his reports as detailed as possible. Spier’s early years were spent studying the many diverse areas of anthropology ranging from archaeology to physical anthropology. His main interests were studying human relations and analyzing cultural processes among Native American groups. As a teacher, Spier was greatly admired by his students because he was extremely successful in passing along his methodological techniques for gathering exact data. Spier is remembered best for his explanatory studies and widespread fieldwork of cultural groups. Spier continued his research using his personal methodology right to his death in 1961. (Wikipedia 2015-03-11)
1Lionel Wafer (1640–1705) was a Welsh explorer, buccaneer and privateer. A ship's surgeon, Wafer made several voyages to the South Seas and visited the Malay archipelago in 1676. The following year he settled in Jamaica to practise his profession. In 1679, however, two noted buccaneers named Cook and Linen convinced him to become a surgeon for their fleet. In 1680, Wafer met William Dampier at Cartagena and joined in a privateering venture under the leadership of Bartholomew Sharp. After a quarrel during an arduous overland journey, Wafer was marooned with four others in the Isthmus of Darien, where he stayed with the Cuna Indians. He spent his time gathering information about their culture, including their shamanism and a short vocabulary of their language. He also studied the natural history of the isthmus. The following year later, Wafer left the Indians, promising to return and marry the chief's sister and bring back dogs from England. He fooled the buccaneers at first as he was dressed as an Indian, wearing body-paint and ornamented with a nose-ring. It took them some time to recognise him. Wafer reunited with Dampier, and after privateering with him on the Spanish Main until 1688, he settled in Philadelphia. By 1690 Wafer was back in England. In 1695 he published A New Voyage and Description of the Isthmus of America, describing his adventures. It was translated into French (1706), German (1759), and Swedish (1789). The Darien Company hired him as an adviser when it was planning its settlement on the isthmus in 1698. He died in London in 1705. (wikipedia, 2011-06-30)
1Little is known about Anehana but for remarks made by James Cowan in Pictures of Old New Zealand and the photography of George and Elizabeth Pulman. Cowan noted that Anehana was a familiar figure in nineteenth-century Auckland and lived north of Auckland at Silverdale, in the settlement formerly known as Wade. In his 1900 publication New Zealand Illustrated Cowan published a Pulman Studio photograph of Anehana as one of his Frontispiece illustrations. Historians associated with modern-day Silverdale note that Anehana would have lived at Weiti between 1860 and 1880 and that few Māori remained there after 1880.2 The original name for Wade was Weiti, as it was located near the head of the Weiti River, a major waterway that joins the Waitemata Harbour south of the Whangaparaoa Peninsula. Weiti was of strategic importance to Māori for it was the entranceway for all canoes navigating up the river with easy access to an overland walkway to the eastern side of the Peninsula. The lived Māori history of the area is sketchy, yet oral and archaeological history tells us the Whangaparaoa region was covered with kauri trees that formed a dense and extensive forest. After the trees were felled for Pākehā settlement and milling in the 1830s, the land was bounteous with kauri-gum, which was extracted for export to Europe to make paint and varnish. Lindauer's portrait of Anehana is based on a photograph by Elizabeth and George Pulman. From 1867 the Pulman's operated a photography studio in Shortland Street in Auckland specialising in scenic photography and portraits. Today, their photographs are of huge historic interest to historians, researchers and descendants of ancestors for their portrait subjects.3 It is not known when the Pulman's took Anehana's photograph, but can be estimated to be between 1867 and 1871. (http://www.lindaueronline.co.nz/maori-portraits/anehana)
1Live together...
1Ludwig Kohl-Larsen (born Ludwig Kohl April 5, 1884, Landau in der Pfalz, died November 12, 1969, Bodensee) was a German physician, amateur anthropologist, and explorer. In 1911 he traveled as ship's doctor with Wilhelm Filchner to Antarctica, but did not participate in the expedition to the Weddell Sea due to appendicitis. At South Georgia he cured himself out and met his wife, the daughter of Carl Anton Larsen, the founder of the town of Grytviken. During the First World War, he was a government doctor working in Micronesia. In 1928 he visited South Georgia with his wife and the cameraman Albert Benitz to lead the first scientific expedition to the island. In 1931 he joined the Nazi Party, and later undertook, partly on behalf of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, expeditions to German East Africa in search of "primitive man". In 1934 he discovered Australopithecus afarensis at Laetoli, without realizing the importance of his find. He also collected folklore of the Hadza and Isanzu. He attempted to prove that all people have a common origin, but that African peoples remained in the state of primitive man, while the Aryan race had developed. Such 'scholarship' was at odds with most anthropological concerns of the day in Africa. In 1939 Kohl-Larsen became Professor of Ethnology at the University of Tübingen. He lost his position in the course of denazification after the war, but worked from 1949 at the Institute of Early History in Tübingen. Due in part to his politics, but also to dubious scholarship, Kohl-Larsen is not highly regarded amongst contemporary East Africanists. (wikipedia, 2010-09-29)
1Make yourself understood...
1Marcel Griaule (1898 – 1956) was a French anthropologist known for his studies of the Dogon people of West Africa, and for pioneering ethnographic field studies in France. Born in Aisy-sur-Armançon, Griaule received a good education and was preparing to become an engineer and enrolled at the prestigious Lycée Louis-le-Grand when in 1917 at the end of World War I he volunteered to become a pilot in the French Air Force. In 1920 he returned to university, where he attended the lectures of Marcel Mauss and Marcel Cohen. Intrigued by anthropology, he gave up plans for a technical career. In 1927 he received a degree from the École Nationale de Langues Orientales, where he concentrated on Amharic and Gueze. Between 1928 and 1933 Griaule participated in two large-scale ethnographic expeditions—one to Ethiopia and the ambitious Dakar to Djibouti expedition which crossed Africa. On the latter expedition he first visited the Dogon, the ethnic group with whom he would be forever associated. In 1933 he received a diploma from the École Pratique des Hautes Études in religion. Throughout the 1930s Griaule and his student Germaine Dieterlen undertook several group expeditions to the Dogon area in Mali. During these trips Griaule pioneered the use of aerial photography, surveying, and team work to study other cultures. In 1938 he produced his dissertation and received a doctorate based on his Dogon research. With the outbreak of World War II Griaule was drafted again in the French Air Force and after the war he served as the inaugural professor of the first chair of anthropology at the University of Paris - Sorbonne. He died in 1956 in Paris. Griaule is remembered for his work with the blind hunter Ogotemmeli and his elaborate exegeses of Dogon myth (including the Nommo) and ritual. His study of Dogon masks remains one of the fundamental works on the topic. A number of anthropologists are highly critical of his work and argue that his claims about Sirius and his elaborate accounts of cosmic eggs and mystic vibrations do not accurately reflect Dogon belief. Griaule is the father of anthropologist Geneviève Calame-Griaule. (wikipedia, 2013-03-05)
1Marshall Howard Saville (1867 - 1935) was an American archaeologist, born at Rockport, Mass. He studied anthropology at Harvard (1889-94), engaged in field work under F. W. Putnam, and made important discoveries among the mound builders in southern Ohio. After 1903 he was professor of American archæology at Columbia University. He also became director of an important private museum in New York, the Museum of the American Indian (Heye Foundation). Dr. Saville conducted many explorations to various places such as Yucatan, Honduras, Mexico, Ecuador and Colombia. Saville was a founding member of the Explorers Club, an organization formerly established in 1905 dedicated to promoting exploration and scientific investigation in the field. (Wikipedia)
1Martín Chambi Jiménez or Martín Chambi de Coaza, Puno, Peru November 5, 1891 – Cuzco, September 13, 1973) was a photographer, originally from southern Peru. He was one of the first major indigenous Latin American photographers. Recognized for the profound historic and ethnic documentary value of his photographs, he was a prolific portrait photographer in the towns and countryside of the Peruvian Andes. As well as being the leading portrait photographer in Cuzco, Chambi made many landscape photographs, which he sold mainly in the form of postcards, a format he pioneered of in Peru. In 1979, New York's MOMA held a Chambi retrospective, which later traveled to various locations and inspired other international expositions of his work. Martín Chambi was born into a Quechua-speaking peasant family in one of the poorest regions of Peru, at the end of the nineteenth century. When his father went to work in a Carabaya Province gold mine on a small tributary of the River Inambari, Martin went along. There he had his first contact with photography, learning the rudiments from the photographer of the Santo Domingo Mine near Coaza (owned by the Inca Mining Company of Bradford, Pa). This chance encounter planted the spark that made him seek to support himself as a professional photographer. With that idea in mind, he headed in 1908 to the city of Arequipa, where photography was more developed and where there were established photographers who had taken the time to develop individual photographic styles and impeccable technique. Chambi initially served as an apprentice in the studio of Max T. Vargas, but after nine years set up his own studio in Sicuani in 1917, publishing his first postcards in November of that year. In 1923 he moved to Cuzco and opened a studio there, photographing both society figures and his indigenous compatriots. During his career, Chambi also travelled the Andes extensively, photographing the landscapes, Inca ruins, and local people. (wikipedia, 2010-09-13)
1Martín Gusinde (Breslau, 29 October 1886 – Mödling, Austria, 10 October 1969) was a priest and ethnologist very known by its antropologic works, specially on the Tierra del Fuego groups. He was one of the most notable Chilean antropologists on the first half of the 20th century, with Max Uhle and Aureliano Oyarzún Navarro. (wikipedia, 2011-06-30)
1Max Schmidt: German ethnologist, boss of the South American section of the Ethnographic Museum of Berlin, dedicated to study trips for America from 1900 until 1931, year when he arrived in Paraguay country to stay there, dedicating the twenty final years of his life to the scientific study of Paraguayan ethnography. In his first trips (1901), he visited the area of Matto Grosso, central Brazil(Xinguanos) and high paraguayenses (Guatós, Guaná-Chanés). His second expedition to Matto Grosso (1910) was dedicated to the archaeological studies of the high - paraguayenses mounds and ethnographical studies of the Paressis-Arawak. In 1914 Schmidt did a new trip to South America, arriving in Paraguay and visiting the group Emok-Toba of Cerrito - Villa Hayes and a Kaynguá - Mbyá group of Eastern Paraguay. In 1916 he presented his thesis of ethnology: "The Arawak", an important study ethno-cultural for the South American area; it embraces two fundamental topics: the cultural diffusion in the tropical forest area and the ethnic dispersion of the towns of neolithic culture. In 1918 he was named professor of the Class of Ethnology of the University of Berlin and one year later, Director of the South American section of the Ethnographic Musum of Berlin. In his third trip to Matto Grosso (1926) he took data on the first contacts with the Barbado- Umotinas, Iranches and Kayabies tribes, published in Spanish in the Magazine of the Scientific Society of Paraguay (1942). Very important is his study "Hallazgos prehistóricos en Matto Grosso y grabados rupestres" about archaeological gathering in the area of the High Paraguay river. In 1929 he renounced to the Museum of Berlin, and he moved away from Germany, settling down in the proximities of Cuyabá. In 1931 he accepted Dr. Andrés Barbero's invitation made him in his character of president of the Scientific Society of Paraguay, to assume the formation and direction of the Ethnography and History Museum, today Ethnographic Museum "Andrés Barbero". He was devoted to the Guarani archaeology; his study "Nuevos hallazgos prehistóricos del Paraguay" refers to his excavations in the neighbouring areas of Asunción and in the riverside of the river Paraguay. In 1935, when concluding Chaco´s War, Dr. Schmidt organized an ethnographic expedition to Chaco, supported by Dr. Barbero, to visit the different tribes that were displaced by Bolivian invasion, to pick up ethnographical material and to perform some studies among the Izozó - Chanés, Matacos, Chiriguano - Guarani and Tapietés. He returned with a thousand of ethnographical objects and photographic material. Schmidt also picked up documental tests to identify the modern Makás. In 1948 it was inaugurated, for the first time in Paraguay, the class of Ethnology -in the incipient Philosophy School of the National University of Asunción- occupying it the Prof. Dr. Max Schmidt. The Anthropological Studies Center of the Philosophy School of the National University of Asunción, conferred in the year 1950 to its parlour the name "Dr. Max Schmidt". His retailer studies on the culture of the the indians from the Chaco, mainly, are a great contribution to Paraguayan ethnography. He was dedicated to the Ethnographic Museum "Andrés Barbero" until his death, happened in October of 1950, few months after his great friend's death, the Dr. Andrés Barbero. (www.museobarbero.org.py, 2010-06-16)
1Max Vollmberg. Born in Germany in 1880, Vollmberg studied at the Royal Academy in Berlin during 1903-06. During 1912-20 he painted in Central America and Mexico. He exhibited at the Babcock Gallery in New York City in 1926 and, in that year, began a two-year tenure at the California College of Arts and Crafts in Oakland. His work includes landscapes and portraits. (www.askart.com, 2013-11-05)
1Medicine head
1Mickaël Bethe-Selassié (born 1951) is an Ethiopian sculptor known for his work in papier mâché. He left Ethiopia after graduating from high school in 1970, studying science in college. He turned to sculpture at the age of 30, and currently lives and works in Paris. Some of his work is in the collection of the National Museum of African Art in Washington, DC. (wikipedia, 2010-04-27)
1Miners emptying mine cart at Cerro Rico silver mine in Potosi. October 8, 2012 - Potosi, Bolivia.
1Moon cake: traditional Chinese food for the Mid-Autumn festival. (focus on aperture, Flickr)
1Movement is crucial to human existence in the world.
1Musical instruments...
1Nate" Saint (August 30, 1923 – January 8, 1956) was an evangelical Christian missionary pilot to Ecuador who, along with four others, was killed while attempting to evangelize the Waodani people through efforts known as Operation Auca. Nate was born and raised near Philadelphia. His father was a designer of stained glass windows. The family attended prayer meetings and Sunday school every week.Nate was an avid flier from his childhood on, and he took flying lessons in high school. During World War II, he served in the U.S. Army, but was forced to leave the army because of an infection in his leg. He graduated from Wheaton College in 1941. In 1948, with his wife, Marjorie Farris, he began working in Ecuador, establishing an air base, and delivering supplies to local missionaries. In September 1955, Nate was joined by his teammates Jim Elliot, Ed McCully, Peter Fleming, and Roger Youderian. Saint finally found a Huaorani settlement while searching by air. In order to reach the tribe, Saint and the team lowered gifts to the Huaorani in a bucket tied to the plane. The Huaorani were a widely feared tribe, because of their chronic fear and anger. They attacked and killed any outsiders without provocation. Nevertheless, the tribe was excited on receiving the gifts, and soon gave some gifts back. Finally, the missionaries decided to attempt to meet the people on the ground, and on January 3, 1956, they set up camp four miles from the Auca settlement, using the beach as a landing strip. Their initial contact with the Huaorani started out encouraging; however, on Sunday, January 8, 1956 the entire team was killed on the beach when armed Huaorani met them. (wikipedia, 2010-09-13)
1New Tribes Mission (NTM) is an international, theologically evangelical Christian mission organization based in Sanford, Florida, United States. NTM has approximately 3,300 missionaries in more than 20 nations, second only to Wycliffe Bible Translators/SIL International[citation needed] David Hesselgrave, Executive Director of the Evangelical Missiological Society, has said of NTM, "New Tribes Mission is in the vanguard of Christian missions. NTM sends out trained missionaries; they send them to the most needy peoples and places on earth; and they send them equipped with a missionary strategy that is second to none." NTM was founded by Paul Fleming from Los Angeles, in 1942. In the '30s, Fleming had worked as a missionary in the British colony, Malaya. The organization sent out its first group in November 1942, to Bolivia. Of the 10 adults and six children, six were killed the following year. According to Time Magazine, five NTM missionaries were killed by aboriginal Bolivians in 1943. Initially, NTM was based in a former nightclub in Chicago. In 1943, NTM started publishing its magazine Brown Gold. In 1944/45, NTM moved headquarters to Fouts Springs, California, where it established its "boot camp." In June 1950, the first plane bought by NTM crashed in Venezuela, killing all 15 people on board. The second plane bought by NTM crashed in November the same year at Mount Moran in Grand Teton National Park (Wyoming), while on its way to bring missionaries abroad, killing all 21 aboard, including spouses, several children and founder Paul Fleming. In July 1953, 14 NTM members serving as volunteer firefighters died in what became known as the Rattlesnake Fire about 25 miles north of Fouts Springs, California in the Mendocino National Forest. (wikipedia, 2010-09-24)
1Not very long ago it took weary caravans about three weeks to move from Srinagar to Leh, which was at the cross-roads of many feeder routes of the ancient ' Silk Route'. Today one reaches Leh in two days by road from Srinagar with just over night stay in Kargil. The road now designated a national highway was constructed in the Sixties…Here you see Trucks after depositing fuel... coming back.....!
1Ojagehti was a famous Chief of the Cayugas, an Iroguois tribe of the Six Nations.
1Ola Rasmus Apenes was born on August 23rd 1898 in the Norwegian town of Fredrikstad. He received his training as an engineer at the Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule in Zurich during 1917—1923. After serving in various appointments with Swedish, Norwegian and North American industrial concerns in the electricity branch, he was from 1929 attached to the L. M. Ericsson Telephone Company Ltd (Compania de Telefonos Ericsson, S. A.) in Mexico City. His spare time in Mexico Apenes with untiring energy devoted to archaeological and ethnographical study. Himself a trained mathematician, he conceived an intense interest in Mayan chronology, and in Ethnos he has published three articles on that special subject. Lake Texcoco and its surrounding district formed in latter years his particular field of research, and there he made several important archaeological discoveries and carried out valuable detailed studies. We were here able to publish a manuscript of his — presumably one of the last he ever wrote — a by-product of his extensive preparations for a work on the history and ethnography of the lake district. In addition, it should not be forgotten that Apenes gave much time and labour to the study of early maps of the Valley of Mexico and that he had himself compiled an excellent map, a detail of which is here reproduced. Ola Apenes was of a retiring disposition, and lived solely for his work and his studies along with a narrow circle of friends. For these, and for all who had come into contact with his sterling personality, his tragic death constituted a deeply-felt loss. He had only recently severed all ties that connected him with his second fatherland, Mexico, and was preparing himself to devote his life and his powers to the liberation of Norway. Even before he had time to complete his preliminary course of instruction, he was carried off by illness in his training camp in Canada. Even among his comrades in the new environment his valuable qualities made themselves felt and appreciated, and letters from them bear witness of the void he left behind in their midst. S. L. (Sigvald Linné, Obituary i Ethnos 1944:I, s. 43)
1Oscar Schmieder (1891-1980), German geographer, a Director of the Museum of Mineralogy and Geology, National University, Córdoba, Argentina. (wikipedia, 2011-07-01).
1Ozan Oyarkilicgil has been practicing at VKM.
1Painting on textile from Bali.
1Pare Watene, also known as Pare Watana. According to James Cowan, her father was Hemi Watene of Ngati Maru. Lindauer's 1878 portrait of Pare Watene is a good likeness of the Foy Brothers photograph taken in Thames between 1871 and 1878. The name Whakaarorangi is inscribed on the back of the photograph and this was her married name. Lindauer was not the only artist to paint a portrait of Pare. J. Gant had a number of portraits of Maori available for sale in 1888 in Wellington. His portrait of Pare went to auction with the title Pari Whakaarorangi a Waikato Chieftaness alongside a portrait of King Tawhiao. (http://www.lindaueronline.co.nz/maori-portraits/pare-watene)
1Pataragurai, maori-chief.
1Paul Hambruch was born in Hamburg in 1882. There he spent his childhood years. After finishing school Hambruch went to Göttingen in order to study Natural Sciences, Chemistry and Mathematics. Eventually Hambruch moved to Berlin where he studied Geography, Anthropology and Ethnology. Ferdinand von Richthofen and Felix von Luschan were among his teachers. Hambruch finished his Ph D thesis in 1907. In 1904 Hambruch had taken up an assistant position at the Ethnological Museum (formerly: Staatliches Museum für Völkerkunde) in Berlin. Due to the support of Georg Thilenius, head of the Ethnological Museum in Hamburg, Hambruch participated in an anthropological expedition to Micronesia in 1909/10. After he had done some research on the Nauru island before, Hambruch now was able to continue his work and deepened his ethnographic knowledge on Nauru and several other islands (e.g., Ponape). He later published a number of books about these areas. Moreover, his collection of fairy tales and myths from this world region became widely known. After his return to Germany Hambruch became head of the Department for Oceania at the Ethnological Museum in Hamburg. Besides working in the museum he finished his habilitation thesis in 1919/20 and eventually began lecturing at the university in Hamburg. In 1922 Hambruch took up a professorship for Anthropology at the university in Hamburg, where he also lectured on Volkskunde, i.e., the study of traditional customs and folklore in rural Europe (also see glossary for: Volkskunde). Paul Hambruch died in Hamburg in 1933. (www.germananthropology.com, 2012-03-13)
1Paul Kane (September 3, 1810 – February 20, 1871) was an Irish-born Canadian painter, famous for his paintings of First Nations peoples in the Canadian West and other Native Americans in the Oregon Country. A largely self-educated artist, Kane grew up in Toronto (then known as York) and trained himself by copying European masters on a study trip through Europe. He undertook two voyages through the wild Canadian northwest in 1845 and from 1846 to 1848. The first trip took him from Toronto to Sault Ste. Marie and back. Having secured the support of the Hudson's Bay Company, he set out on a second, much longer voyage from Toronto across the Rocky Mountains to Fort Vancouver and Fort Victoria in the Columbia District, as the Canadians called the Oregon Country. On both trips Kane sketched and painted Aboriginal peoples and documented their lives. Upon his return to Toronto, he produced more than one hundred oil paintings from these sketches. Kane's work, particularly his field sketches, are still a valuable resource for ethnologists. The oil paintings he completed in his studio are considered a part of the Canadian heritage, although he often embellished them considerably, departing from the accuracy of his field sketches in favour of more dramatic scenes. (wikipedia, 2007-07-01)
1Paul Rivet (7 May 1876, Wasigny, Ardennes – 25 March 1958) was a French ethnologist, who founded the Musée de l'Homme in 1937. He was also one of the founders of the Comité de vigilance des intellectuels antifascistes, an antifascist organization created in the wake of the February 6, 1934 far right riots. Rivet proposed a theory according to which South America was populated by settlers from Australia and Melanesia. Trained as a physician, he took part in the Second French Geodesic Mission for survey measurements of the length of a meridian arc to Ecuador in 1901. He remained for five years in South America where he was mentored by Ecuadorian bishop, historian and archaeologist Federico González Suárez and began an ethnographic study of the Huaorani people of the Ecuadorian Amazon, then known as the Jívaro. When he returned to France, he was active with the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, directed by René Verneau. He published several papers on his Ecuadorian research during and immediately following the trip, culminating in an extended volume co-authored with René Verneau between 1921 and 1922 under the title Ancient Ethnography of Ecuador. In 1926, Paul Rivet participated in the establishment of the Institut d'Ethnologie in Paris, where he taught many French ethnologists. In 1928, he succeeded René Verneau as director of the National Museum of Natural History. Rivet's theory asserts that Asia was the cradle of the American man, but also that migrations took place from Australia some 6,000 years before, and from Melanesia somewhat later. Les Origines de l'Homme Américain ("The Origins of the American Man") was published in 1943, and contains linguistic and anthropological arguments which support his thesis. In 1942, Paul Rivet went to Colombia, where he founded the Anthropological Institute and Museum. Returning to Paris in 1945, he continued teaching while carrying on his research. His linguistic research introduced several new perspectives on the Aymara and Quechua languages. (Wikipedia 2013-12-18)
1Paul Sarasin, full name Paul Benedict Sarasin (11 December 1856 - 7 April 1929) was a Swiss naturalist and he is known as founder of National parks in Switzerland. He was a second cousin of Fritz Sarasin. They made a scientific expedition to Celebes (now Sulawesi). (wikipedia, 2012-05-08)
1Pedro Nisser was a Swedish miner that arrived in Colombia in 1825; he married Maria Martínez de Nisser, a famous woman of the post-independence revolution in Colombia, for which there is a vast historical literature about her and her husband (e.g. Wassen, 1969 among others). Pedro Nisser lived in the south of Antioquia Department, Sonsón Municipality, where he occasionally collected specimens of fauna that were sent or taken to the NRM. Although he did not always live in Sonsón, his works in Colombia were at the southern area of Antioquia department, which, together with records of distribution of specimens of Riama columbiana recently collected, leads me to believe that the syntypes were collected in the area.
1Peter Kunstadter has been working in northern Thailand since 1963 on a number of ethnographic, demographic, and epidemiological studies, primarily among highland minorities, in collaboration with several Thai universities. He is recently retired from the University of California San Francisco. (Pesticides in Southeast Asia)
1Photograph of a Hopi man weaving cloth for a woman's dress in the village of Shonguapavi, ca.1901. He is sitting on a rug. The loom is suspended by loops of rope under the eave of a house and weighted down with two large stones -- one at each side.
1Piece of a canoe in the shape of a crocodile.
1Porotilii, maori-chief.
1Prayer mat from Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
1Richard Dowden (born 20 March 1949 in Surrey, United Kingdom) is a British journalist who has specialised in African issues. Since 1975, he has worked for several British media and for the past eight years he has been the Executive Director of the Royal African Society. Richard Dowden is author of the book, “Africa: Altered States, Ordinary Miracles” (Portobello Books, 2008), with foreword from the Nigerian writer Chinua Achebe. He lives and works in London. (Wikipedia 2014-04-08)
1Right and wrong...
1RISK ZONES Is the world becoming an increasingly dangerous and insecure place to live? RISK ZONES is a critical art exhibition with works by internationally recognized artists who interpret a vulnerable, unstable and complex world. Riskzones comes from the Contemporary Art Collection of "la Caixa" Foundation, Spain. All the art works belong to "la Caixa" Foundation´s own collections.
1ROBERT FLEMING HEIZER was one of the preeminent archaeologists of the twentieth century. A longtime professor of anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley, Heizer made scholarly contributions to archaeology, anthropology, ethnohistory, and history. Much of his research and the many publications that followed dealt with the prehistoric and historic Native American peoples of the western United States, particularly Nevada and California. He was a pioneer in the field of scientific applications to archaeology, principally in research dealing with radiocarbon dating in its early phases in the 1950s and then with trace element analysis of obsidian (volcanic glass) artifacts in the 1960s and 1970s. Heizer also was deeply involved in the early application of cultural ecology in North American archaeological sites. Much of this research stemmed from analyses of preserved materials from ancient Nevada caves, primarily coprolites (fossil feces) that were a direct reflection of human diet and dietary change through time. Heizer became active in fieldwork in Mesoamerica in the 1950s, continuing up to the time of his death. His excavations provided insights into cultural evolution of the Olmec civilization, and collaborative efforts with geologists and chemists provided new data on trade patterns in prehistoric Mexico and Guatemala. Heizer's prodigious publication record leaves a tremendous resource for future generations of archaeologists and anthropologists in the study of many facets of ancient and early historic human lifeways. Heizer was born on July 13, 1915, in Denver, Colorado, the son of Ott Fleming (a mining engineer) and Martha Madden Heizer (a nurse). He married Nancy Elizabeth Jenkins in 1940 (they were divorced in 1975); they had two sons, Stephen and Michael, and a daughter, Sydney. It was during Heizer's youth, much of it spent in Lovelock, Nevada, that he developed his lifelong interest in the culture of the American Indian. He was able to observe the surviving remnants of the northern Paiute peoples and to collect artifacts from prehistoric sites in the area. Curtice (1981, p. 2) reports that Heizer's uncle learned to make chipped stone projectile points from local Indians. Heizer did a lot of reading about Indians and archaeology, and he once told me that his father contacted an acquaintance (perhaps a relative) who worked in Washington, D.C., to secure copies of Smithsonian Institution publications for Bob. Shortly thereafter, a whole set of Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletins, Smithsonian Annual Reports, and related publications were dumped off, in crates, at the Lovelock train depot! At the age of fourteen Heizer worked as a volunteer at the Smithsonian Institution (Curtice, 1981, p. 2). After graduation (in a class of eleven) from Lovelock High School in 1932 Heizer had wanted to go to the University of California, Berkeley, to study archaeology; however, the Lovelock school had an enrollment of only seventy students and several subjects required for admission to the university were not taught there. Heizer later said (here and in some later passages I quote from unpublished reminiscences that he sent me in July 1973) that he "failed the College Entrance Examinations and was advised to go to a junior college" prior to entering what was then called the "State University." (http://www.nap.edu/readingroom.php?book=biomems&page=rheizer.html, 2010-11-16)
1Robert Swanton Platt (1891-1964) was born in Columbus, Ohio, studied at St. George's School and the Hotchkiss School, and graduated from Yale in 1914. After teaching for a year at Yale in China at Changsha, he returned to the United States to enter the Department of Geography of the University of Chicago in 1915. Despite the interruption of military service during World War I, he completed his Ph.D. and was appointed an instructor in the Department in 1920. For the next thirty-seven years, Platt remained at the University of Chicago as assistant professor (1921-1927), associate professor (1927-1939), professor (1939-1957), and chairman (1949-1957) of the Department of Geography. The central concern of Platt's work as a geographer was the intensive field study of small geographical areas that could provide data to support broader theoretical generalizations on the interrelation of landforms and human occupancy. Beginning in 1920 and continuing for more than thirty years, Platt led graduate students in his field courses on annual summer trips to Ellison Bay, Wisconsin, the upper Great Lakes region, and along the U.S.-Canadian border from Manitoba to Quebec. Conclusions drawn from these studies were distilled for presentation at the annual meetings of the Association of American Geographers and subsequently published as a regular series of articles in professional journals. Platt followed a similar procedure in surveying Central and South American geography. On seven trips to the Caribbean and Latin America between 1922 and 1941 (each lasting from two to six months), Platt and his wife, Harriet, alternated lengthy traverses of continental regions with careful micro-studies of specific villages and farms. These studies, which eventually numbered nearly one hundred, formed the basis for Platt's monographic text, Latin America: Countrysides and United Regions (1942). In later years, Platt utilized the field methods developed in the 1920's and 1930's to examine a variety of other geographic settings: Tierra del Fuego (1948); the Dutch-German border (1952-1954); the Saarland (1958-1959); volcanic activity in Mexico, Hawaii, and Italy (1958-1960); and Pakistan (1961). In each of these projects, as in the edited collection of essays published as Field Study in American Geography (1958), Platt stressed the spatial complexity of human social and cultural patterns and warned against the conceptual dangers of environmental determinism. While fieldwork formed the foundation of his reputation, Platt was equally well known for his interest in general geographical theory and the development of geography as a professional discipline. From 1923 to 1940, he was a regular participant in the spring field conference of American geographers first organized by Wellington Jones and Carl Sauer. He served the Association of American Geographers for many years as its treasurer (1929-1934), vice-president (1943), president (1945), and as editor of the Annals of the A.A.G. from 1961 to 1964. Outside the discipline, Platt advanced the interests of professional geography as vice-chairman of the Division of Geology and Geography of the National Research Council (1937-1939); as adviser to the Geographer of the U.S. State Department (1943); and most notably as chief of the Division of Maps at the Library of Congress (1944-1945) during Federal wartime mobilization. Even after his retirement in 1957, Platt's interest in professionalism and methodology was reflected in his organization of the Pakistan Field Geographers while a Fulbright Scholar in 1962 and his course on Geographic Thought given as a visiting professor at Indiana University in 1963. (http://ead.lib.uchicago.edu/learn_on3.php?eadid=ICU.SPCL.PLATT&q=, 2011-07-01)
1Sand painting, navajos.
1Shield from Borneo, Indonesia, made by wood..
1Sketch of a Quipucamayoc from El primer nueva corónica y buen gobierno (The First New Chronicle and Good Government), a chronicle of Inca history by the indigenous Inca historian Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala (ca. 1535–1616). Shown on the lower left side is a yupana.
1Slightly splaying rim. Body with angular outline. Two opposed horizontal handles painted black. Stem. Decoration: Encircling bands of parallel lines encircling on inside of rim, and inside the bottom. A red band on the side inside the bowl. A black band cover the upper part of the foot. A panel-pattern of vertical lines on outside, with two swasticas in the centre of each panel. Brown-reddish clay.
1Sort these spoons in the correct order
1Susuga Malietoa Laupepa (1841–1898) was the ruler (Malietoa) of Samoa in the late 19th century. Laupepa was born in 1841 in Sapapali'i, Savaii, Samoa. His father was Malietoa Moli and mother was Fa’alaituio Fuatino Su’a. He was raised in Malie, received a religious education at Malua Seminary and was well-known as a devout Christian. He was the recognized leader of the Sā Mōlī which was based primarily in northern Tuamasaga. Laupepa cemented ties with Palauli (the only significant Sā Mōlī support base on Savai‘i) through his marriage to Sisavai‘i Malupo, a daughter of Niuva‘ai of Palauli, Savaii. The children of this marriage were two sons called Tanumafili and Siliva‘ai, and a daughter named Fa‘amusami [Fa‘amuleuatoivao]. When about 20, Tanumafili became Malietoa Tanumafili I. Laupepa later married a Rarotongan woman named Tui Ariki of a chiefly Cook Islands family. In June 1894, both Laupepa and his son Mōlī II visited with the Latter-day Saint missionaries at Lalovi, Mulifanua with an army regiment of about 1,000 men. The missionaries described Laupepa to be “a very pleasant old gentleman,” about 5’9” and 180 pounds who spoke in a “deep bass voice” (Hart, Hart & Harris 67). Laupepa underwent the rituals to receive the pe'a traditional tattoo when he was in his forties. (wikipedia, 2012-02-28)
1Sydney Hopkins, photographer, used to live on Rarotonga, Cook Islands, and is buried in the Avarua churchyard. (www.cinews.co.ck/memory_archives.htm)
1Te Rangi Pikinga belonged to the Ngāti Apa people of Whanganui and Taranaki and was born around 1800. Her mother was Te Rangi Kopinga. She had a brother named Te Arapata and Te Arapata Hiria was her elder sister. When Te Rangi Pikinga was a young woman she was captured by a taua party led by Te Rauparaha of Ngāti Toa. Te Rauparaha's nephew Te Rangihaeata took a fancy to Pikinga and their subsequent marriage effected a peace treaty between Ngāti Apa and Ngāti Toa. The marriage laid the foundations of Ngāti Toa occupation of the Kapiti Coast. As a peace-bride Te Rangi Pikinga's marriage maintained and secured the occupation rights and mana of Ngāti Apa and provided mutual protection of her tribe's Rangitikei and Manawatu lands. In this sense,Te Rangi Pikinga was a symbolic ' pou' between Ngāti Apa and Ngāti Toa. Te Rangihaeata would refer to her as his 'pou rohe' meaning she was a critical link between the tribes. Indeed, on one occasion Te Rangi Pikinga agreed to stay at Rangitikei as a boundary post to protect Ngāti Apa at Whangaehu. Te Rangi Pikinga shared the stormy life of Te Rangihaeata, whom she survived. He was exiled to Poroutawhao, between Levin and Foxton, where he died in 1855.2 It is not known when Te Rangi Pikinga died, only that she lived out her last years at Poroutawhao. It is thought that Te Rangi Pikinga was deceased by 1868. (http://www.lindaueronline.co.nz/maori-portraits/kuinioroa-daughter-of-rangi-kopinga-te-rangi-pikinga)
1The beginnings of the Ethnological Museum date back to the Cabinet of Art and Rarities belonging to the Electors of Brandenburg. As early as the seventeenth century they collected not only works of European art but also rare objects from distant parts of the world. They eventually formed the Royal Prussian Art Cabinet from which, in 1829, the "Ethnographic Collection" was created. This collection then moved into the Neues Museum on Museum Island. The Ethnological Museum was founded in 1873 and in 1886 it moved into its own building in Stresemannstrasse. Under its first director, Adolf Bastian, who died in 1905, acquisitions from throughout the world systematically increased the museum's possessions. The building in Stresemannstrasse was destroyed during World War II. As a result all surviving objects which had been removed for safekeeping were reunited after the war in the former storage building in Dahlem. By 1970 new extensions had been completed providing facilities not only for the Ethnological Museum but also for the Museums of East Asian and Indian Art. (http://smb.museum/smb/sammlungen/details.php?lang=en&objID=56&p=1, 2010-06-16)
1The Center for Development of Traditional and Contemporary Culture "Kyrgyz Style", an officially registered NGO in the Kyrgyz Republic, began its work in 1993 under the name "Talent Support Fund". The basic mission of Kyrgyz Style is the support of civil and cultural initiatives in the spheres of culture, education and social development. A priority area is supporting the national handicrafts of Kyrgyzstan. From 1994 to 1997 the American organisation "Aid to Artisans", worked most fruitfully with our artisan members in the context of their program with the artisans of Central Asia. Since then the organisation of series of training programs for craft groups has become a regular aspect of Kyrgyz Style's work. Since 1994 Kyrgyz Style has been working with artisans from all regions of Kyrgyzstan (Issyk-Kul, Chui, Naryn, Osh), training groups of national masters and rendering support in several areas.
1The Ethnological Museum in Berlin (German: Ethnologisches Museum; until 1999 Museum für Völkerkunde) is one of the largest ethnological museums in the world. It houses half a million pre-industrial objects, acquired primarily from the German voyages of exploration and colonialization of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It is famous for its reconstructed houses from around the world, its boats, and its many Benin bronzes. The museum is located in the Dahlem neighborhood of the borough of Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Berlin. It shares a building with the Museum für Asiatische Kunst, and the Museum Europäischer Kulturen. It is one of the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (National Museums in Berlin) . The museum includes one of the first ethnomusicology collections of sound recordings (the Berliner Phonogramm-Archiv), a film archive, a children's museum, and a museum for the blind. (Wikipedia, 2010-06-16)
1The Field Museum of Natural History (shortened to Field Museum) is located in Chicago, Illinois, USA. It sits on Lake Shore Drive next to Lake Michigan, part of a scenic complex known as the Museum Campus Chicago. The museum collections contain over 21 million specimens, of which only a small portion are ever on display. The president of the museum is Richard W. Lariviere. Some prized exhibits in the Field Museum include a large collection of dinosaur skeletons in the Evolving Planet exhibit, a comprehensive set of human cultural anthropology exhibits (with artifacts from ancient Egypt, the Pacific Northwest, the Pacific Islands, and Tibet), a large and diverse taxidermy collection (with many large animals, including two prized African elephants and the infamous Lions of Tsavo featured in the 1996 movie The Ghost and the Darkness), the Ancient Americas exhibit devoted to a large collection of Native American artifacts, and Sue (the largest and most complete Tyrannosaurus skeleton currently known). (wikipedia, 2013-04-02)
1The Forrest...
1The history of the Museum für Völkerkunde zu Leipzig stretches back more than 130 years. Founded in 1870 by a group of prominent Leipzig citizens headed by Hermann Obst, the museum was established upon the purchase of the collection of Gustav Friedrich Klemm, a Royal Saxon Advisor who had amassed one of the most important private collections of ethnographic material at that time. The museum moved out of its original home at the chemical laboratory in Liebigstrasse in 1873, and was housed in four different locations before finally coming to rest at the new Grassimuseum at Johannisplatz in 1927. The museum's collections were enlarged during that period by large and important acquisitions and donations from the German Society for Natual History and Ethnology of Eastern Asia in 1878; Adrian and Phillipp Jacobsen and Hamburg's Godeffroy Museum in 1885; Saxon geologists Alphons Stübel and Wilhem Reiss in 1887; Baron Speck von Sternburg; and collections gathered during nineteenth-century expeditions by Hans and Hermann Meyer, Leo Frobenius, Fritz Krause, and Karl Weule. In December 1943, soon after the reopening of the museum, large parts of the building, as well as a fifth of the collection, were tragically destroyed by Allied bombing. Reconstruction and revitalization of the museum gained momentum in the 1950s, and the museum staff began to fill the gaps in the collections and commence research projects in many part of the world, some of which are ongoing today. Further increases to the collections were made through the purchase of private collections and by the assimilation of collections of other museums under state supervision. Today, with approximately 220,000 objects from all over the world and some 100,000 photos and documents, the Museum für Völkerkunde is one of the foremost ethnological museums in Europe. The museum contains large collections of material from all the regions of Asia; the Near and Middle East; North, South, and East Africa; North and South America; and Australia and Oceania. Highlights of the museum's collections include an exceptional group of Ainu objects, one of the world's oldest collections of Fiji material, and a fine assemblage of East African Makonde masks. (http://www.tribalartmagazine.com/en/musees/museum_fur_volkerkunde_leipzig.html)
1The Keith Haring Foundation was established in 1989 to assist AIDS-related and children's charities, and maintains the largest resource of archives on the late artist, Keith Haring.
1The Linden Museum (German: Linden-Museum Stuttgart. Staatliches Museum für Völkerkunde) is an ethnological museum located in Stuttgart, Germany. The museum features cultural artifacts from around the world, including South and Southeast Asia, Africa, the Islamic world from the Near East to Pakistan, China and Japan, and artifacts from North and Latin America and Oceania. The museum traces its origins to the collection of objects amassed by the Verein für Handelsgeographie (Association for Trade Geography) in the 19th century. The namesake of the museum is Karl Graf von Linden (1838–1910) who, as president of the Stuttgart Verein für Handelsgeographie, took an interest in assembling and organizing the collection, and invited explorers of the caliber of Sven Hedin and Roald Amundsen to Stuttgart. In 1911, the collection was established as a private museum and its current building was constructed. After suffering extensive damage during World War II, the building was restored in the 1950s and the municipality became its custodian. Since 1973, the museum has been jointly administrated by the city of Stuttgart and the state of Baden-Württemberg. (Wikipedia, läst 2016)
1The Lower Saxony State Museum (German: Niedersächsisches Landesmuseum Hannover) is a museum in Hanover, Germany. It is located opposite the New City Hall. The museum comprises the State Gallery (Landesgalerie), featuring paintings and sculptures from the Middle Ages to the 20th century, plus departments of archaeology, natural history and ethnology. The museum includes a vivarium with fish, amphibians, reptiles and arthropods. (wikipedia, 2013-02-21)
1The Museum was physically housed from 1903 to 1931 in San Francisco, where exhibits opened to the public in October, 1911. A key attraction during these years was Ishi, the last Yahi Indian, who lived at the Museum from 1911 until his death in 1916 and worked with the anthropologists to document the ways of his people. When the Museum moved back to the Berkeley campus in 1931, there was no space for public exhibitions, and the Museum focused on research and teaching. With the construction of a new building housing the Museum and anthropology department in 1959, space for exhibition again became available. The building, which the Museum continues to occupy, was named Kroeber Hall, and the Museum was named in honor of Robert H. Lowie, a pioneer in the Berkeley anthropology department. In 1991, the Museum's name was changed to recognize the crucial role of Phoebe Apperson Hearst as founder and patron, and professor Lowie was honored by the designation of the exhibition hall as the Robert H. Lowie gallery. (http://hearstmuseum.berkeley.edu/museum/history.php, 2010-05-10)
1The Musée national des Arts et Traditions Populaires was a museum of the popular arts and traditions of France. It was located at 6, avenue du Mahatma Gandhi, Paris, France, but is now permanently closed to the public. Its collections are being transferred to the Musée des Civilisations de l’Europe et de la Méditerrané in Marseilles. The museum was created in 1937 as the French section of the Trocadéro's Musée de l'Homme. In 1969 it moved to its own building, designed by architect Jean Dubuisson and set beside the Jardin d'Acclimatation in the Bois de Boulogne. Over the years its initial focus on traditional agricultural France broadened to include contemporary urban culture, with collections of French crafts and peasant civilisation, home furniture, agricultural tools, industrial and artisanal items, photographs and printed materials, and costumes. (wikipedia, 2010-11-16)
1The National Gallery of Art was created in 1937 for the people of the United States of America by a joint resolution of Congress, accepting the gift of financier and art collector Andrew W. Mellon. During the 1920s, Mr. Mellon began collecting with the intention of forming a gallery of art for the nation in Washington. In 1937, the year of his death, he promised his collection to the United States. Funds for the construction of the West Building were provided by The A. W. Mellon Educational and Charitable Trust. On March 17, 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt accepted the completed building and the collections on behalf of the people of the United States of America. The paintings and works of sculpture given by Andrew Mellon have formed a nucleus of high quality around which the collections have grown. Mr. Mellon's hope that the newly created National Gallery would attract gifts from other collectors was soon realized in the form of major donations of art from Samuel H. Kress, Rush H. Kress, Joseph Widener, Chester Dale, Ailsa Mellon Bruce, Lessing J. Rosenwald, and Edgar William and Bernice Chrysler Garbisch as well as individual gifts from hundreds of other donors. The Gallery's East Building, located on land set aside in the original Congressional resolution, was opened in 1978. It accommodates the Gallery's growing collections and expanded exhibition schedule and houses an advanced research center, administrative offices, a great library, and a burgeoning collection of drawings and prints. The building was accepted for the nation on June 1, 1978, by President Jimmy Carter. Funds for construction were given by Paul Mellon and the late Ailsa Mellon Bruce, the son and daughter of the founder, and by The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. On May 23, 1999 the Gallery opened an outdoor sculpture garden designed to offer year-round enjoyment to the public. Located in the 6.1-acre block adjacent to the West Building at 7th Street and Constitution Avenue, N.W., the garden provides an informal, yet elegant setting for works of modern and contemporary sculpture. The Collectors Committee, an advisory group of private citizens, has made it possible to acquire paintings and sculpture of the twentieth century. Key works of art have also come to the Gallery through the Patrons' Permanent Fund. In addition, members of the Circle of the National Gallery of Art have provided funds for many special programs and projects. The Sculpture Garden is a gift to the nation from The Morris and Gwendolyn Cafritz Foundation. (www. , 2010-09-13)
1The National Museum was established by the King of Portugal Dom João VI (1769–1826) in 1818 with the name of Royal Museum, in an initiative to stimulate scientific research in Brazil, which until then was an immense and wild colony, practically unexplored by science. Initially the Museum sheltered botanical and animal specimens, especially birds, what caused the old building where it was located in center of Rio de Janeiro, to be known by the population as the "House of the Birds". (wikipedia, 2012-02-27)
1The Red Location Museum is an Apartheid museum in New Brighton township of Port Elizabeth, South Africa. It was designed by South African architectural partnership Noero Wolff Architects and has won a number of prestigious international architecture awards, such as the RIBA's Lubetkin Award. It was opened in 2005. The Red Location Museum challenges the traditional role of museums as representing a single or hegemonic perspective of history. Instead, the floor space contains various "memory boxes", each one exhibiting the life story or perspective of people or groups who fought against the Apartheid regime. There is no clear hierarchy to the arrangement of these boxes, and visitors are free to walk between and into them in whichever order they wish. The site of Red Location was important in the history of the Struggle: the first Umkhonto we Sizwe branch in South Africa was started in the township, and it was also the site of the first Defiance Campaign arrests. The museum pays homage to the area in various ways. The towering memory boxes are clad in the same rusted corrugated metal sheets as the surrounding shacks of the shantytown (which give Red Location its name), and the overall form of the museum resembles that of a factory. This is a reference to the workers' unions and industrial unrest which was instrumental in bringing down the Apartheid government. The museum is open to the public, and houses exhibition space, an art gallery, restaurant and auditorium. (wikipedia, 2010-05-12)
1The Royal Museum for Central Africa or RMCA (Dutch: Koninklijk Museum voor Midden-Afrika or KMMA; French: Musée royal de l'Afrique centrale or MRAC), colloquially known as the Africa Museum, is an ethnography and natural history museum situated in Tervuren in Flemish Brabant, Belgium, just outside Brussels. It was first built to showcase King Leopold II's Congo Free State in the 1897 World Exhibition. The museum focuses on the Congo, a former Belgian colony. The sphere of interest however (especially in biological research) extends to the whole Congo River basin, Middle Africa, East Africa and West Africa, attempting to integrate "Africa" as a whole. Intended originally as a colonial museum, from 1960 onwards it has more focused on ethnography and anthropology. Like most museums, it houses a research department in addition to its public exhibit department. Not all research pertains to Africa (e.g. research on the archaeozoology of Sagalassos, Turkey). Some researchers have strong ties with the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences. As of November 2013, the museum is closed for renovation work (including the construction of new exhibition space) which is expected to last until 2017 when the museum will reopen. (Wikipedia, 2016)
1The “Association of Albanian Girls and Women” (AAGW) is a nonprofit humanitarian organization created by and for victims of human trafficking in Albania. It is estimated that there are over 6,000 Albanian girls and women who are currently or who formerly have been victims of illegal trafficking for the purpose of enforced prostitution, one third of whom are younger than eighteen. More victims are arriving all the time. The average age is seventeen; the youngest girls are fourteen. These girls and women are the beneficiaries of AAGW, but they are also its members and leaders. A primary aim of AAGW is to help former victims of trafficking reintegrate into Albanian society. AAGW promotes this goal by supplementing and supporting job training, job placement, and handicraft production programs. Equally important, since AAGW is an organization run by and for trafficked women, its daily operation also offers important leadership and managerial experience and provides a voice for this marginalized group in Albanian society. AAGW is a tool for personal empowerment. These victims of trafficking have been robbed of their human dignity. AAGW seeks to help them restore it. As members of their own association, these young women are the experts on trafficking; they know best how to determine their own needs and propose solutions for lasting change. AAGW gives them this opportunity. (http://www.aagw.org, 2010-06-11)
1Theodor Koch-Grünberg (9 April 1872, Grũnberg/Oberhessen, Germany – 8 October 1924, Rio Branco, Brazil) was a German ethnologist and explorer who made a valuable contribution to the study of South America's indigenous people, in particular the Pemon Indians of Venezuela and the Brazilian tribes of the Amazon region. After studying humanities at the University of Tübingen, he obtained a doctorate in philosophy at Würzburg with a thesis on the Guaicuru. In 1896 he travelled to Brazil for the first time as a member of an expedition led by Hermann Meyer in search of the source of the Xingu River, a tributary of the Amazon River. Then from 1903–1905 he explored the Yapura River and the Rio Negro to the border with Venezuela. In 1906, he published photogravures of people he encountered on the expedition in his monumental "Indianertypen aus dem Amazonasgebiet nach eigenen Aufnahmen während seiner Reise in Brasilien" (1906). A written account of his trip, including his study of the Baniwa, was published in two volumes in 1910-11 under the title: "Zwei Jahre Unter Den Indianern. Reisen in Nord West Brasilien, 1903-1905" ("Two Years Among the Indians. Travels in North-West Brazil") He illustrated his account with photographs and his descriptions of Brazilian tribes are still used by anthropologists and ethnologists today. His second major expedition started in 1911 and took him from Manaus, up the Rio Branco to Mount Roraima in Venezuela, where he documented the myths and legends of the Pemon Indians and took numerous photographs. Koch-Grünberg used the local names Arekuna and Taulipang to describe the indigenous groups he studied but these are local names for the Pemon. He then explored the Sierra Parima, the Caura River and the Ventuari River, before reaching the Orinoco River on 1 January 1913. After spending a short time in San Fernando de Atabapo, then the capital of Amazonas Federal Territory, he continued his journey along the Casiquiare canal, which links the Orinoco River system with the Amazon, via the Rio Negro. He then returned to Manaus, before returning to Germany to produce his most important work: "Vom Roraima Zum Orinoco" ("From Roraima to the Orinoco"), which was published in 1917. He was the director of Berlin's Ethnographic Museum, where many of the items he collected on his travels are stored. Koch-Grünberg died suddenly and tragically in Brazil in 1924 after contracting malaria on an expedition with the American explorer, geographer, and physician Alexander H. Rice, Jr. and the Portuguese-Brazilian cinematographer Silvino Santos to map the upper reaches of the Rio Branco. The film of the expedition was called "The Trail of El Dorado" and was highly successful. (wikipedia, 2010-08-30)
1This salt cellar is made of ivory and shows Europeans with long hair, beards and hooked noses. Objects of this type were perhaps the first known examples of 'tourist art' from Africa: luxury items made as souvenirs for foreigners.
1Tlaloc, God of the Rain, Thunder, Earthquakes. Évocation du codex Borgia.
1To buy clay pots and pans in most Brazilian cities, all one needs to do is visit the nearest market in which artisanally produced material can be purchased. There you can find pots of all sizes from miniature to mammoth and in a myriad of shapes and forms. Some are beautifully decorated with incized designs and decorative handles, others are purely utilitarian. But they all work equally well. It's also possible to buy clay pots online in Brazil for those who don't live near a market that sells them. Clay pots need to be seasoned prior to first use, but once seasoned, they can last a lifetime if properly handled. In the next post here on Flavors of Brazil we'll teach you how to season an unglazed clay pot Brazilian-style, and then we'll highlight some Brazilian recipes which are best cooked in clay. (http://flavorsofbrazil.blogspot.se/2012/06/utensils-of-brazil-clay-pot-panela-de.html, 2012)
1Together is safe, fun and strong. But it can also be tiresome and hard. No one can live all alone. We all need each other. Together is an exhibition where we can play and learn from each other. In here we can dance, fight and make up. Be apart and learn to understand each other. Welcome inside to experience this world together!
1Tracing his descent to the Mahuhu waka, Te Hira Te Kawau was a high-born chief of Tāmaki Makaurau (Auckland), who took part in many land sales with the Crown. Te Hira Te Kawau lived most of his life at Okahu and was a rangatira of Ngāti Whatua. His father was Apihai Te Kawau, who signed the Treaty of Waitangi on 20 March 1840 at Orakei, and his mother was Kirepiro of Te Taou. Te Hira is known mostly for his forming part of a small group of chiefs, including his father Apihai and his cousin Paora Tuhaere, described as 'leaders of the dominant groups within Ngati Whatua … [who] had the mana to decide what happened to most of the Ngati Whatua lands during these years'. Upon the death of his father, the mantle of paramount chief of Ngāti Whatua went to Paora Tuhaere. Lindauer painted both Te Hira and Tuhaere, inscribing the reverse of Te Hira's portrait, 'Chief Hira te Kawau G Lindauer pinx 1874'. Te Hira wrote his name in the artist's notebook, one of the few remaining examples of his handwriting. The page is headed up 'For Mr Partridge' and appears as number 17, 'Hiroto te Kawau'. In addition, the portrait was one of those sent to the St Louis World's Fair in St Louis, Missouri in 1904. (http://www.lindaueronline.co.nz/maori-portraits/te-hira-te-kawau)
1Unstraight Perspectives Unstraight Perspectives is a cooperation between several museums and other institutions/NGO´s in Sweden and abroad to develop, produce and execute two parallel exhibitions with an unstraight theme. The exhibitions will consist of unstraight artifacts and stories collected by the local museums and institutions/NGO´s. An example of how this could look like is the artifacts and stories found in The Unstraight Museums database. The exhibitions will be the core in a campaign including education and information, like work shops and debates, with the goal to create understanding about the equal rights of all human beings and everyones right to be represented in our common history. The two exhibitions will have the same format and touring in Sweden and internationally simultaneously. No Norm is financed by Postkodlotteriet, Svenska Institutet, Världskulturmuseet, Historiska Museet, Arbetets Museum, Malmö Museer, the Swedish Embassy in Hanoi, UNESCO, iSEE, CSAGA and CCIF. The Short Story In 2007 a group of people in Sweden got tired of the fact that most museums neglect to tell the stories of Unstraight people and therefore decided to do something about it by starting the exhibition project Article 1, a collaboration between some of Swedens most prominent museums (The Army Museum, The Nobel Museum, The National Museum of Science and Technology, The National Historical Museum and The Police Museum). From this project sprung the idea of a new museum focused on collective collecting of Unstraight history. (www.unstraight.org, 2015-03-13)
1Wilhelm Müller-Wismar was a German ethnographer (May 20, 1881 - October 10, 1916) who was a native of Wismar. In 1905 he graduated from the University of Berlin, where he studied ethnography and anthropology under Felix von Luschan (1854-1924). From 1908 to 1910 he was a member of a scientific mission to the South Pacific that was coordinated by Georg Thilenius (1868-1937) of the Hamburg Museum of Ethnography. On this expedition Müller-Wismar spent nine months on the island of Yap, of which he later published an important scientific treatise. He also took part in the Berlin-Indonesian expedition to the South Moluccas in 1913-14. Müller-Wismar died from typhoid on October 10, 1916 at the age of 35 in Malang, Java. (wikipedia, 2011-11-16)
1Wola Nani, Xhosa for 'we embrace and develop one another', was established in 1994 as a non-profit organisation to help bring relief to the communities hardest hit by the HIV crisis. It is within the context of South Africa having the largest burden of HIV infection in Sub-Saharan Africa that Wola Nani works towards its vision of seeing the quality of life of persons living with HIV and Aids improved to an extent that they are living positively, with hope. Formed against a background of economic curtailment on welfare spending and a huge increase in the number of HIV and AIDS cases, Wola Nani initiated programmes to help people living with HIV and AIDS in the local community cope with the emotional and financial strains brought about by HIV and AIDS. Wola Nani is now one of the oldest non-governmental organizations in Cape Town which consistently provides this type of service to women and children. Wola Nani's services have traditionally been designed for unemployed women infected with HIV, for two main reasons. The first, proven by studies, is that women are most vulnerable to HIV and AIDS due to the range of social, economic, biological, cultural and legal factors. The second, is that women are often, whether by choice or not, the consistent providers for the family in terms of food and care. In the same context, children often suffer the negative effects of poverty, disease and the breakdown in family life. Children who live in poverty are all vulnerable- whether orphaned by HIV and AIDS or not, therefore, children are a focal point of the work of Wola Nani in addressing the psycho social effects of HIV and AIDS. Wola Nani's service provision has for 17 years centered on counselling, support groups and income generation opportunities for unemployed persons living with HIV and AIDS. Wola Nani's focus on women and their children does not exclude men but has developed in response to where the need for the organisation's services is greatest. However, all persons living with HIV and AIDS regardless of gender, race, age or religious belief are all welcome. (www.wolanani.co.za, 2013-11-11)
1Writer and art collector Han Nefkens is founder and president of ArtAids. Born in Rotterdam in 1954, he studied journalism in France and the USA. He lived in Mexico until 1987, working as a correspondent and radio journalist. He is the author of a novel (1995) and two collections of short pieces (2005 and 2008). In 2000, he began his collection of international contemporary art, the H+F Collection, a major part of which is given on long-term loan to museums within the Netherlands and abroad. Infected with HIV since 1987, he founded ArtAids in 2006. (http://artaids.com/blog/2009/07/02/han-nefkens/, 2010-04-27)
1Yoshiko Iwamoto Wada (born August 2, 1944 in Kobe, Japan) is a textile artist, curator, researcher and author. Her scholarship and expertise in the field of textile art is internationally recognized. Wada has received numerous grants and fellowships, including two from The Japan Foundation. In 2010, she was named a "Distinguished Craft Educator - Master of Medium" by the James Renwick Alliance of the Smithsonian Institution, who stated: "she is single-handedly responsible for introducing the art of Japanese shibori to this country" (Wikipedia 2016)
1You are born and you breathe - a first breath! From the beginning of time and everywhere in the world, people have thought that the soul enters us through our first breath. The ancient Greeks called the soul Psyche – spirit and soul are different words for the same idea. In Latin it is called Spiritus – to be inspired. Some think that inspiration comes from outside, from a spirit or a wind, or perhaps from a god that blows into us and gives us ideas. Others think that inspiration comes from within ourselves, that it is a mental state. Breathing is always with us – it is our nexus, a link between our bodies and the earth and the air. Breathing helps us when we have to cope with a situation we cannot do anything about. When we take our last breath,does our soul leave us? Some say that we should always open a window when someone dies. Why?
1Yusuf Abdallah Usman, the director-general of National Commission for Museums and Monuments (NCMM)
1Zelia Maria Magdalena Nuttall (September 6, 1857 – April 12, 1933) was an American archaeologist and anthropologist, born at San Francisco, who specialised in pre-Columbian Mesoamerican manuscripts and the pre-Aztec culture in Mexico. She traced the Mixtec codex now called the Codex Zouche-Nuttall and wrote the introduction to its first facsimile publication (Peabody Museum, Harvard), 1902. She was educated in France, Germany, and Italy, and at Bedford College, London. She first came into prominence on the publication of her work on the "Terra Cotta Heads of Teotihuacan" in the American Journal of Archaeology (1886). The following year she became an honorary special assistant of the Peabody Museum, and in 1908 was named honorary professor of the National Museum of Mexico. (wikipedia, 2013-03-22)