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Carlotta - the museum database

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1...In their design all the vessels [...] appear to be traceable to metal prototypes, although otherwise no traces of any metal culture have been found in Ch´i Chia Ping. Akin to this jug mentioned above, although typologically of later date, is [K-05523]. Moreover, the ware differs from that of the other vessels in its grey tone and its well-smoothed surface, which strongly recalls the fragments described on page 417 above. There are slight traces of red on the entire exterior of the vessel. Compared with the jug described above (type 5) the shape exhibits mannered forms. Thus, the extension of the rim over part of the mouth covers so much of it as to leave only a small kidney-shaped opening, in front of which, close to the edge, there projects obliquely upwards a spout ornamented with rivetlike knobs. Just as the body which became compressed through the extension of the neck, makes a bulbous and inflated inpression, so this cover appears bulbous and "swollen". When the body acquired its swollen form the underpart of the belly did not follow suit but formed a foot-like base. On the other hand, as the neck became extended downwards, the broad disc-like handle did the same. The fact that the handle is attached to a portion projecting from the over-vaultod rim, this part being decorated with two knobs resembling rivet- heads, lends force to the general characterization of the vessel as a direct imitation of metal ware. [BMFEA 18:426-427) ... Bought in Lanchou. Jug with high neck and squat body. The mouth covered with a vaulted "roof" provided with a spout and a kidney-shaped hole. The transition between the neck and body marked by an incised line. The broad handle which has at the top a joint with two trivet heads is ornamented with two groups of incised lines. The fragmentary spout provided with two mvet heads. Height of vessel to the rim of mouth 19.8 cm. Greatest br. 15 cm. Br. of handle 4.6 cm. Diam. of bottom 19.2. Dark grey ware with greyish core. The exterior smooth and showing faint traces of red colour. On the underside of the bottom and of the handle indistinct mat impressions. (BMFEA 18:479)
11922 expedition at Tsagan Nor, Mongolia. Bottom row: Mongol interpreters and caravan men. Second row: left to right: Morris, Colgate, Granger, Badmajapoff, Andrews, Bekey, Larsen, Shackelford. Top row: Chinese technical and camp assistants.
1About the album sheets The Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities owns a collection of Chinese album sheets depicting the making of central products in Chinese trade, such as silk, tea and rice. This late 18th-century album (Qing) depicts the cultivation of tea, from seed to packing and exportation to the rest of the world. This kind of album was made in the late 18th and the 19th centuries by anonymous artists. Usually the pictures were larger and the scenes more picturesque and decorative than those made for domestic use. The pictures answer to the West’s interest in Chinese production methods and technology, as well as its interest in exotic China. The Chinese artists had probably not studied the manufacturing process, but used Chinese woodcuts and book illustrations from 17th and 18th centuries as models, which is why the depictions are roughly accurate. The paintings have a pedagogical purpose and are both elegant and detailed. At the same time the depictions of the settings and of everyday life are very idealised. The album shown here used to belong to Crown Prince Oscar of Sweden (1799–1859), later King Oscar I, and after his death to his spouse Josephine (d 1876). The exportation of tea and other products related to tea During the Qing Dynasty, Europeans managed to negotiate the right to trade in the city of Canton (Guangzhou), southern China. The trade was strictly regulated and run by national companies. The first company was formed in 1600 by England followed by the Netherlands in 1602 and by the French in 1644. The Swedish East India Company was established in 1731. Despite hard restrictions, the trade soon took on considerable proportions. Tea had been a central Chinese export product since the beginning of the 18th century. By this time, tea had become extremely popular in Europe and was very profitable for the large companies. For example, tea made up almost 70 percent of the Dutch East India Company’s annual import from Canton. The tea trade was therefore of great importance to Canton’s economy. As the demand for tea increased, the interest in accessories such as tea sets and other objects related to tea grew. In the mid 18th century, local artisans in Canton started to supply the market with gouaches with motifs of silk, china, rice and tea production. At the same time the motifs were used for porcelain produced in Jingdezhen. The early history of tea The wild tea bush (Camellia sinensis) grows in the mountainous region on the border between India, China and Southeast Asia. In this humid and mild climate the tea bush can grow to a height of ten metres. Early on in the Yunnan and Sichuan provinces people began to make infusions from tea leafs. It is hard to determine the exact date when people started to drink tea. According to legend it was the mysterious emperor Shen Nong (2000 BC) who first discovered the qualities of tea. The same emperor is also credited with the invention of agriculture. The problem of dating the origin of tea drinking is in part explained by the limited historical documentation in the area where tea comes from. In addition, the written records are hard to interpret, since for a long time the character for tea was the same as for the milk thistle – a bitter herb that is used in various decoctions. While many Chinese writers have been inclined to interpret every occurrence of the character as proof of the early date of tea infusions, Western scholars have been more cautious. In China the origin of drinking tea is dated to the early Zhou dynasty (ca 1000 BC) while most Western scholars mention the Han dynasty (206 BC–220 AD) as the starting point. After the Han Dynasty tea quickly became very important. Records from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD mention cultivation of tea in western and central China. Records from the 5th century AD show that tea cultivation had spread further east by then. Soon tea was used for different purposes and at various occasions. Tea was made into compressed cakes, roasted and prepared as loose-leaf tea. All social classes drank it, both at festive occasions and as an everyday beverage in the streets. The first heyday of tea drinking occurred during Tang Dynasty (618–906), and from the middle of the 8th century there are rich records of various aspects of tea culture. Tea played an important role within Buddhist meditation. The fundamental methods for cultivating tea had been already developed by then and have been used in China until modern times. At the end of the Tang tea had become a wide-spread beverage in all social classes across China and had also spread to neighbouring countries such as Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Along the Silk Road tea had also become an important merchandise. (text to "Library Reader") Sources Kee Il Chori Jr, “Tea and Design in Chinese Export Painting,” The Magazine Antiques 154, No 4, p. 510–519), 1998 Lange, Amanda E, Chinese Export Art at Historci Deerfield, (2005) Historic
1A group of old pine trees on the slope of Xiangshan. (The Imperial Palaces of Beijing)
1A large brick pagoda at Yuchuanshan. (The Imperial Palaces of Beijing)
1Andersson and Liu Changshan (kneeling) inspecting a section near the Yangshao village in 1921.
1An old pine tree (Pinus Sinensis) on the slope of Xiangshan. (The Imperial Palaces of Beijing)
1Chengwangfu. Shendian (Ancestral Hall), Chengwangfu: Shendian (Ancestral Hall) (The Imperial Palaces of Beijing)
1Chengwangfu. Tianchuntang (Hall of the Spring Heaven. (The Imperial Palaces of Beijing)
1Chengwangfu. Xixianlou (The loft of the western fairies) (The Imperial Palaces of Beijing)
1Chengwangfu. Yinandian. (The Silver Peace Hall) (The Imperial Palaces of Beijing)
1John Nixon was born at Edinburgh, the son of Robert Bell Nixon, a freight broker, of Bombay, and his wife Margaret Selina, daughter of Surgeon-Major Alexander Hunter of the Madras Army. He was educated at Hurstpierpoint and Caius College, Cambridge, where he was Tancred student and graduated in natural sciences in 1896. He took the degrees of M.B, B.Ch, four years later, having completed his studies at St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, and then held resident appointments at St. Bartholomew’s, the Metropolitan Hospital, the Royal Westminster Ophthalmic Hospital and the Bristol Royal Infirmary. It was in Bristol that he settled. He became assistant physician to the Royal Infirmary in 1906 and physician in 1908, and during his early years on its staff was in charge of the skin department. He was appointed clinical lecturer on diseases of the skin at Bristol University in 1909 and professor of medicine in 1924, retiring in 1935 and receiving the title of emeritus professor a year later. For varying periods he belonged to the staffs of the Southmead Hospital, Cossham Memorial Hospital, Stoke Park Colony and Bristol Mental Hospital. During and after the 1914-1918 War he served as a consultant, holding the rank of colonel, with the 4th Army and the Rhine Army; he was created C.M.G. in 1919. In the years between the Wars he acted as regional adviser to the Ministry of Health, member of the Industrial Health Research Board, and inspector of examinations for the General Medical Council. After the outbreak of war in 1939, he was a regional adviser to the Emergency Medical Service and lectured on civil defence. He was Long Fox lecturer at Bristol in 1930 and FitzPatrick Lecturer at the Royal College of Physicians in 1941-42. Nixon’s wide interests in medicine embraced occupational diseases and nutritional disorders, and he wrote a Textbook of Nutrition (1938) in partnership with his wife, Dr. Doreen Walker, daughter of W. A. Walker, whom he had married in 1924. Among his non-professional activities was the study of naval medical history and ecclesiastical history. He was a lover of music and himself a fine singer. He died in Bristol Royal Infirmary, leaving a son and a daughter. G H Brown [Lancet, 1951; B.M.J., 1951; Times, 19 Mar. 1951; Biog.Hist.of Caius College, ii, 530, https://history.rcplondon.ac.uk/inspiring-physicians/john-alexander-nixon]
1Lamaistic rock sculptures at Yuchuanshan. (The Imperial Palaces of Beijing)
1Liwangfu. Qingyinchai (The pavilion of clear sounds). (The Imperial Palaces of Beijing)
2New Summer Palace. Foxiangge (Buddha’s Incense Tower). (The Imperial Palaces of Beijing)
1Old Pagoda of glazed bricks on Xiangshan. (The Imperial Palaces of Beijing)
1Pailou with glazed bricks on Xiangshan. (The Imperial Palaces of Beijing)
1Qingxiaolou (Tower of Felicitous Skies). Front view. (The Imperial Palaces of Beijing)
1Renyuting and the Rockery on the shore of Yingtai. (The Imperial Palaces of Beijing)
1Side view at the court at Yanqinglou. (The Imperial Palaces of Beijing)
1The book Gengzhi tu (“Pictures of tilling and weaving”) is a very well-known Chinese book which has been published in several editions and versions. The original work was published in 1237, under the Song dynasty, after an original dating from 1145 and authored by Lou Shu ( 1090-1162) who worked at the court of the Southern Song dynasty. The book consists of 45 illustrations and accompanying poems about two of China’s foremost economic activities: rice-growing and silk-farming. Gengzhi tu was published in a new guise under the Qing dynasty (1644-1911), when the Kangxi Emperor commanded the court painter Jiao Bingzhen to provide new illustrations for it. That book, published in Peking in 1696, contained 46 illustrations of rice-growing and silk production, together with the Emperor’s preface and poems. The Museum of Far Eastern antiquities has an album containing copies of the illustrations from Gengzhi tu presenting rice-growing. The illustrations show rice-growing as practised under the contemporary Qing dynasty. They betray an unmistakeable European artistic influence, e.g. in the treatment of perspective. This is attributed to Jiao’s contacts with the Jesuit monks whom the Emperor had affiliated to his court in Peking. After the first printing of Genzhi tu in 1696, many other imperial and popular editions appeared in China and also in Korea and Japan. The woodcuts were copied and were also used as motifs on porcelain for the home and export markets, as well as appearing in European prints, engravings and watercolours. Art purchasing from China steadily gained popularity in the second half of the 18th century, and many Chinese artists adopted the western style and techniques. Occasional Chinese paintings found their way to Europe before this, but they did not make any allowances for western taste. The Chinese learned the western way of painting from the Jesuit missionaries who, in the late 17th century and the 18th, engaged in various forms of artistic activity at the imperial court in Peking. This made an important difference to the painting which was intended for export and which was done by artists whom the Chinese regarded, not as artists but as artisans. Even before the mid-18th century, albums showing production of tea, porcelain and silk, as well as rice-growing, were among the most popular paintings of all. The same subjects were subsequently reiterated with infinite variety right down to the 1840s. A word about rice-growing For ages past, rice has been a staple foodstuff in large parts of Asia. Advances in agriculture were labour-intensive and were achieved on small family farms. The different units co-operated, above all in the matter of irrigation. The output resulting from intensive farming practices and the possibility of up to three harvests annually on the same acreage made possible a very high population density in the ancient rice-growing regions of China, India, Japan and central Java. The methods of cultivation characterising East Asian rice production right down to modern times were evolved in South China under the Song dynasty (960-1279). The Arabs brought rice-growing to Spain and Sicily at an early stage of their history. Rice-growing in North Italy rose to a significant scale in about the mid-15th century, spreading in the 17th century to North America. (text from Library Reader) Sources Wirgin, Jan, 1998 Från Kina till Europa pp. 280-290, Östasiatiska museets utställningskatalog nr 53 O Franke, Keng Tschi T’u Ackerbau und Seidengewinnung in China (1913) Hamburg L. Friederichsen & Co
1The glazed brick pagoda (Bolita) at Yuchuanshan. (The Imperial Palaces of Beijing)
1The Modern School for Girls at Xiangshan. (The Imperial Palaces of Beijing)
1The New Summer Palace. Renshoudian; the state hall of the Empress Dowager. (The Imperial Palaces of Beijing)
1The New Summer Palace. The Boat house. (The Imperial Palaces of Beijing)
1The New Summer Palace. Yulantang and the adjoining island. (The Imperial Palaces of Beijing)
1The terraced pathway and old trees at Jingyiyuan on Xiangshan. (The Imperial Palaces of Beijing)
1The terraced pathway leading up to the top of Xiangshan. (The Imperial Palaces of Beijing)
1Wanshandian, The Round Pavilion behind the Main Hall. (The Imperial Palaces of Beijing)
1Yuanmingyuan. An old Bridge over the mud-filed canal. (The Imperial Palaces of Beijing)
1Yuanmingyuan. Decorated columns from one of the European Palaces. (The Imperial Palaces of Beijing)
1Yuanmingyuan. Ruins of a round terrace with a sculptured pedestal. (The Imperial Palaces of Beijing)
1Yuanmingyuan. Ruins of Hai Yen T’ang (Haiyantang) (Hall of the Quiet Sea) (The Imperial Palaces of Beijing)
1Yuanmingyuan. Ruins of Hsü Shui Lou (Xushuilou)(House for Collecting the Waters). (The Imperial Palaces of Beijing)
1Yuanmingyuan. Ruins of Kuan Shui Fa (Guanshuifa)(Looking at the spring waters) (The Imperial Palaces of Beijing)
1Yuanmingyuan. The south facade of Hai Yen T’ang (Haiyantang). (The Imperial Palaces of Beijing)
1Yuchuanshan (The Mountian of the Jade Fountain). (The Imperial Palaces of Beijing)